Saturday, August 31, 2019

Pfizer information systems Essay

Pfizer is a health organization in form of a pharmaceutical company. It has its headquarters in London. Due to the wide distribution of activities within the corporation however, success of its activities has been through the use of Clinical Management System (CMS). This is management software, which is in a form of a wide scope of database that support the storage, processing and release of information across different departments. In 2000, this information system database won the top honor towards care management. The nature of the database is inform of a complex autonomy of information sourcing, storage and dissemination center to the various departments within the organization. (http://ieeexplore. ieee. org/Xplore/login. jsp? url=/iel5/6709/20043/00926806. pdf? arnumber=926806) It has been an important implement towards the maintenance of patient records in electronic forms. It helps in providing support for the providers of primary care, care managers, health professionals and nurses with the most appropriate framework for decision-making. Within its system, CMS database holds records about the outlay of various chronic diseases. Elsewhere, it is equipped with the health information of various patients which is seen as an important step towards offering adequate performance lifestyle in the care management for the patients. (http://www. pfizer. com. my/01b_bus. asp) To Pfizer, CMS database system was developed as a solution towards patients care management. It has been a tool for supplement health care management in various institutional process management within the organization. A complex autonomy of data is held within its system which captures patient health history, chronic diseases, and medical attention given to them above others. Decision support for patients is attained through the provision of information across various departments within the organization. The database helps the professionals for health care in collected the most appropriate medical history, laboratory data, medical data information on treatment status, symptoms and other basic patient information. Within its system also, treatment information on patients that have diabetes, depression and heart failure is maintained. It also has a component of modules that are used by health care professionals in facilitating health lifestyles. Consequently, an approach towards lifestyles that help to reduce the risks involved in cardiovascular disease is provided. (http://www. pfizerhealthsolutions. com/media/071301_award. asp) Therefore, CMS is a risk management database system where information which is patient specific is stored. Consequently, the stored information is thus configured towards providing the most appropriate real-time analyzed decision support structures to the caregivers. The application of the information held in the system involves trained nurses as well as care managers who are licensed to use various program protocols under strict supervision of a specialist. They then deliver the most appropriate care towards the success of the patients. It has various clinical features and functions aimed at patient care management. Generally, Pfizer Health solutions have been known in offering and enhancing efficiency and quality in health care delivery. This would perhaps be a simple structure of database CMS information system.

My Last Duches by Robert Browning

Among the many poems that are found in Booth, Hunter and Mayes’ The Norton Introduction to Literature, it is without controversy that Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s How I Love Thee makes one of the most interesting reads to many. It is against this backdrop that the poem has been chosen for analysis and reflection. Personal Reaction to the Poem The poem How Do I Love Thee by is by far one of the richest poems in terms of both the internal qualities of the poem such as the theme and external qualities such as stylistic devices are considered.For instance, as far as extrinsic or aesthetic richness of the poem is concerned, the use of rhymes is heavily extant, not only for the aesthetic purposes, but to also help bolster the theme. Some of the rhymes found in words such as Height and Sight, Grace and Days, Candlelight and Right, Praise and Faith, Use, Lose and Choose, Depth and Breadth, Needy and Purely, Death and Breath (Booth, 125). That the rhymes are used to expound on t he simile that the author uses to divulge on the manner of her feelings to her love still underscores the theme and extent of love in the poem.Some of the subordinate clauses that are colored by these similes are: as men strive for right; and as they turn from praise. [Personal] Explication of the Poem The gravity of the poem in this case, is not hinged upon the heaviness of the theme or topic in itself, but the manner in which artistic and linguistic devices are harnessed to bring out the beauty and weightiness of the topic or theme being discussed. Particularly, it is through the use of language aesthetically that Browning expresses what love is.For instance, readers get the impression that love should remain constant, at the mentioning of a love that remains extant throughout the author’s life [breath] in the 12th stanza. That love should be based on free will in lieu of compulsion is also underscored in the 7th stanza as the author mentions her love as being premised on f ree will as men strive for that which is right. Among a host of other virtues, love is expressed as being backed up by [responsible] actions by the referring of â€Å"Love with a passion being to use† in the 9th stanza (Browning, 75).[Personal] Feelings Evoked By the Poem The feelings evoke feelings of genuine love: that love that commits itself to and through responsible action, as opposed to fickle feelings [stanza 9]. This love is expressed as being free [stanza 7], pure [stanza 8], and constant through the vagaries of life and present at the point of death [stanzas 11-14]. What the Poem Says About Life and the Human Condition It is against the backdrop of the above feelings and standpoints adduced by the poem that matters regarding life and human condition come to the fore.Particularly, it is this love that is needed in marriage with the high spates of divorce the world over attesting about its absence. The importance of this love transcends the marriage spectrum to perme ate all facets of life and human existence. It is this kind of love that, upon existing, would see man given to philanthropy to better fellow man’s welfare instead of building nuclear arsenals and indulging in the snares of avarice, folly and prejudice. Works Cited Booth, Alison. The Norton Introduction to Literature. WW Norton & Co. Inc. , 2004. Browning, B. Elizabeth. The Wondering Minstrels: How Do I Love Thee? New York: SAGE, 2005.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Leadership and Management Concepts for Health Professionals Essay

In this essay, leadership will be defined and analysed. A detailed leader profile from my workplace will be developed and described using transformational theory, as this is the most adequate theory to describe the performance, effectiveness and styles used by the leader to achieve the objectives and goals in my workplace. Moreover, the nature of the leader’s role and achievement utilising the theory will be analysed. In addition, transformational theory will be defined and analysed based on different explanations. Leadership is one of the most essential criteria of the nurse manager. It is the process of interaction between the leader and the other staff, influencing them toward workplace goals achievement (Yukl, 1998). Leadership is the ability to provide direction toward preferred future aspirations and aligns the followers toward goals achievement (Kelly-Heidenthal, 2004). Moreover, leadership is viewed as a dynamic interactive process that involves various dimensions, including planning, organising, directing and controlling. The activities of an organised group can be influenced by a process in which the efforts to achieve the goals and tasks are managed by leadership (Roussel, Russell & Swansburg, 2006). Leadership is also defined as inducing individuals or a group to take an action in accordance with the purpose of the leader. Moreover, Roussel, Russell and Swansburg (2006) correctly pointed out that leadership can be explained as a group of individuals who have been inspired by a person to work together toward achieving common goals and missions using appropriate means. A crowd can be transformed into a functioning and useful organisation, and this is a vital component of leadership. Leadership can be formal or informal. As Sullivan and Decker (2004) explain, it can be formal when a nurse manager demonstrates power and authority within a framework of legal approval by the organisation. Leadership can be informal when utilised by a staff member who does not have effective leadership skills, ideas and roles to promote the performance of the work outcomes. Leader’s Profile Mrs. Zahra is a nursing officer who has been working since 1996 in charge of a department in the Armed Forces Hospital, Sultanate of Oman. She is known to everybody in the department and all around the hospital as a friendly person who is intelligent, hardworking, and motivational, a good communicator and a person with a strong personality that inspires others to follow her. In addition, Mrs. Zahra has problem solving skills and extensive experience and knowledge in her speciality as well as in leadership and management. Further, she is a member of the Quality Assurance and Staff Development Committees. As she is in charge of the operating theatres department, she manages the planning and coordination of the operating rooms scheduling system. Moreover, she adjusts the staffing assignments of nursing and ancillary personnel to provide adequate room coverage. Motivation, direction, controlling and evaluation of the staff performance are some of the leader’s responsibilities. Transformational Leadership Transformational theory is the most appropriate theory to describe my leader’s role, nature and achievements. Transformational leadership focuses on how the followers can be motivated, guided and directed to achieve the goals of the work by the leaders (Sullivan & Decker, 2005). Sullivan and Decker (2005) emphasise that generating employees’ commitment to the vision is the goal of transformational leadership. According to Kelly-Heidenthal (2004), ‘transformational leadership is based on the idea of empowering others to engage in pursuing a collective purpose by working together to achieve a vision of a preferred future’. The work of Roussel, Russell and Swansburg (2006) reveals that there are four components of effective and dynamic transformational leadership: management of trust, attention, self and meaning. In management of trust and reliability, decisions based on fairness, honesty and equity that have been made by the transformational leaders will be respected, followed and executed by the nurses. A transformational leader’s judgment is usually consistent and sound. Having vision, goals or a sense of outcomes will lead to achieving the management of attention. Any health care organisation will be defined by how it serves the community and where it is headed in order to achieve its vision statement. Vision means the credible, attractive and realistic future stated for the organisation. Knowing the skills of the staff and how to utilise them effectively is defining the meaning of self. Leaders develop their leadership skills through continuing their education in leadership and management skills so that the burnout and stress facing them will be reduced and controlled. In management of meaning, leaders must inspire commitment in staff by communicating their vision and creating a standardised culture among the staff by using group discussions, meetings, agreements and consensus building in which individual innovation and creativity are well supported. The goals and objectives that are consistent with the vision must be related with the rewards and appraisals for the staff. Moreover, Roussel and Russell (2009) have made clear that in transformational leadership, the achievement of goals that benefits the organisation and the personnel themselves is achieved by empowering the personnel to have a vision about the organisation and to trust the leaders. Transformational leadership can be practiced in hospitals and emergency rooms, as they are unstable and rapidly changing environments. Therefore, leaders in this atmosphere will acknowledge uncertainty, be flexible, motivate, and consider the employees’ values and needs (Roussel & Russell, 2009). In transformational leadership, leaders empower and motivate the staff by involving them in decision-making, which inspires them to be a part of the vision and makes them feel that they are part of the team contributing to the success of the organisation. Leaders inspire the staff by rewarding them for the quality and excellence of the work carried out. As a result, leaders will have staff who demonstrate high quality performance, commitment and job satisfaction Roussel & Russell, 2009). Kelly-Heidenthal (2004) has pointed out that the empowerment and inspiration of the staff leads to high performance and commitment to the organisation through a good relationship between the leaders and the staff. In general, there are certain common characteristics that transformational leaders should have. These are the ability to: instil a sense of capability in staff; offer vision; inspire trust; perform all tasks on time; take risks; manage and take action appropriately during times of crises; and communicate effectively. In the context of a transformational leadership framework, Mrs.  Zahra treats all staff in a friendly way, equally and with perfect communication skills acceptable to all of them. This leads to building a trusting relationship between her and the staff. In addition, the leader involves all the staff in the organisation’s vision and treats each staff member as a part of it. As a result, the self-confidence of the staff is gained and restored. The leader is concerned about the values and needs of her staff as she routinely holds individual meetings with each staff member in her office, asking each one of them about their feelings, needs and problems and tries to address them. Further, she shares many responsibilities and power with the staff; therefore, the staff feel responsible to work harder and more effectively. This causes all staff to be more motivated and work hard to accomplish the goals and tasks of the organisation. The leader holds general meetings with all staff frequently sharing with them decision-making, work strategies and any other new ideas from the staff. Consequently, all staff are inspired to be a part of the team, working hard and effectively for the vision of the organisation. The leader inspires the staff by being a model of a hard working, responsible and motivational person. In doing so, she motivates and stimulates staff performance and commitment to achieve the goals of the organisation. As Mrs. Zahra is a trustworthy and reliable leader. All staff follow her decisions with a sense that she is doing the best for the achievement of the organisation’s tasks. She directs, guides and controls all operating theatres scheduling systems. She delegates and allocates staff to fulfil various functions as a motivation process, which increases the trusting relationship between her and the staff. This leads to increased staff commitment, goals’ achievement and job satisfaction. The leader develops staff knowledge and experience in collaboration with the staff development department by involving them in ongoing job training programs in the Armed Forces Hospital or by sending them for short courses in Oman or nearby countries. Thus, staff will be more knowledgeable, educated, and more capable to carry out the work and tasks effectively and on time. As an example of the leader’s motivation of the staff, she has assigned a monthly reward for one of the staff members who works hard and effectively with high performance. This creates competition amongst the staff to work harder with a high level of performance and commitment to achieve the goals of the organisation. Moreover, this process demonstrates the meaning of inspiration skills and how to motivate the staff positively within the organisation. After all, the organisation’s performance and productivity in general will be increased and delivered with high quality standards. Conclusion Leadership is one of the most important skills in nurse managers. It is a process of interaction between the leader and the staff, influencing them positively toward achieving the goals and tasks of the organisation. Transformational leadership is very effective and is commonly used in hospitals. It is based on ideas of empowering, inspiring and motivating the staff toward working together to achieve the organisation’s goals and vision. A transformational leader who acts as a role model can influence the staff and make them accountable for their own practice, work achievement and staff development (McNaron, 2009, pp. 89-560). Moreover, high levels of competency can be gained by using transformational leadership skills and the quality of patient care outcomes will be improved as a result. Staff development, commitment and job satisfaction can be improved by using transformational leadership skills. These are motivation, inspiration, empowerment, building a trusting relationship between the leader and the staff, sharing power and decision-making and rewarding staff for quality and excellence of job achievement. My leader’s profile has been discussed in detail. As well as her nature, goals and achievements, using transformational leadership theory has been recognised with many similarities between them. She applied transformational leadership skills very effectively and utilised them toward the improvement of staff and the organisation’s productivity in general. I enjoyed working in the operating theatres department with Mrs. Zahra’s leadership and I hope that I will continue working with her for many years to come. I wish the best for my leader and for her to continue in her current leadership style.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

The negative effects of milk products on the human body Essay

The negative effects of milk products on the human body - Essay Example On the other hand, mothers' milk has six to ten times as much of the essential fatty acids, especially linoleic acid which cow's milk does not have. While animals stop taking in milk from weaning however, man is known to continue with his fill, and is in fact the only specie that drinks the milk of other species. On television healthy, beautiful people claim milk is good for the body. Dieticians insist that one has got to have milk to have calcium. Milk producers likewise advocate the benefits of calcium, vitamin D, and other nutrients. Meanwhile, mothers insist on their children to drink their milk, and schools include milk in their feeding programs. For many years also, people are taught that dairy products make up an "essential food group." And yet amidst this din, there are those who claim that milk is poison, and mention possible links to cancer or other diseases. Yet, people have grown so comfortable consuming milk and eating milk products, and for this, many do not give a second thought to the possible negative effects of milk. Worse still, they do not want to give up milk. ... n intestinal colic, intestinal irritation, intestinal bleeding, anemia, allergic reactions in infants and children as well as infections such as salmonella. There is the fear of viral infection with bovine leukemia virus or an AIDS-like virus as well as concern for childhood diabetes. Also discussed in these literatures is contamination of milk by blood and pus as well as a variety of chemicals and insecticides. Among children the problems were allergy, ear and tonsillar infections, bedwetting, asthma, intestinal bleeding, colic and childhood diabetes. In adults the problems seemed centered more around heart disease and arthritis, allergy, sinusitis, and the more serious questions of leukemia, lymphoma and cancer. According to Kradjian, none of the authors said milk was a perfect food. As if to concur to findings that milk is not good for the human body, its composition is now being sought to be altered but that it is accepted that only one institution is incapable of doing this venture.3 The following discussions include why milk and dairy products are bad, the effects of ingesting milk and dairy products, and the alternatives. It also includes the stand of the government on these products and the stand of doctors. A conclusion at the end repeats the paper's thesis that milk is bad for the body due to these named deficiencies and negative effects on the human body. Why milk and dairy products are bad Not a perfect food. That milk is a perfect food is a dairy industry myth.4 Outside of milk containing a wide range of disease-causing substances that can have a cumulative negative effect on all who consume it, milk lacks other elements.5 In 1930 Dr. G.O. Burr in Minnesota working with rats found that linoleic acid deficiencies created a deficiency syndrome. This

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Development within the European Union of the Second World Countries Assignment

Development within the European Union of the Second World Countries - Assignment Example Thus, in the course of discussion on the development process of these countries, it is inevitable to tackle the history of transition of these countries from a system of planned economy to their membership to the European Union and their subsequent integration to the global free market. A brief presentation on the situation of the Second World countries during the late 1990s was presented in this paper; however, the whole discussion gives its main focus in the past ten years of the new millennium. Introduction The European Union has become one of the most influential economic and political organizations in the world since the Second World War. Starting from a membership of six countries in 1958, European Union has now a membership of twenty seven countries and still expanding. European Union was established based on the framework of Europe-wide single market that would promote peace, stability and prosperity. Economic cooperation is at the core of the guiding principles of EU country -members basis of unity. EU stands for borderless economy within Europe and strives to make Europe an accessible place to live and work for all the Europeans. It is still a glaring reality; however, that unequal development still exists within the European Union. For the last five to ten years, changes within the boundaries associated with the European regions have caused altered changes in the economy of European Union. Despite of the thrust to create a single Europe, member-countries of the European Union sill differs from each in other in terms of economy, politics and social well-being of the people in the society. Specifically in terms of economy, the differences between the second world countries within the union have created a gap in the past decade. The economic activities of the second world countries in the region have been directly affected by their membership in the European Union either positively or negatively. How do the second world countries progress as members of t he European Union? Is this helpful for them as a whole? Basically, this paper will delve on these matters. This paper will examine the economic growth of the second world countries within the European Union for the last five to ten years. This paper also tries to establish that in as much as the Second World countries need the integration within the framework of the European Union, Europe would also benefit from the accession. In the past years, Europe has been insulated in productivity, especially in terms of labor. An American worker generates 27 percent more output per dollar compared to the European workers. Employers in France and Belgium are entitled at least twenty six paid national holidays in addition to their vacations. A German worker being is paid with 14.5 months of work per year but actually works for 9.5 months (Tupy, 2003). Also, the European GDP per capita today is less that two thirds compared to that of the United States, whereas they were roughly equal before. Th e glaring reality of Europe’s economy – slow growth, generous social provisions, high unemployment rate, and high taxes on European’s citizens – raises questions on the correctness of the European economic model would be able to help the Second World countries in their thrust for prosperity (Tupy, 2003). Thus, this paper will also discuss how the status of the economy of the second world countries affects the stature of European Union as a whole. Second

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

The Trial of John Peter Zenger and Jury Nullification Essay

The Trial of John Peter Zenger and Jury Nullification - Essay Example This paper shall look into the Zenger trial and its legacy of jury nullification and freedom of speech and of the press. The Antecedent Facts Although the case banners Zenger’s name, he is in fact a mere collateral personality in this entire hullabaloo. His participation is actually limited to being the printer of The New York Weekly Journal, no more, no less. The case traces its history way back to the arrival of Governor William Cosby into the shores of America. When Cosby arrived in August 1731, New York was under the capable hands of Rip Van Dam as Acting Governor. Van Dam, a member of the Provincial Council of New York was appointed as acting governor while Cosby made the months-long journey from Britain to America. However, upon his arrival, Cosby demanded that Van Dam turn over half of the salary he had received as Acting Governor. When the latter declined, Cosby sued Van Dam in a court which he created solely for that purpose. (The Trial) To ensure a favorable decision , Cosby bypassed the jury from his case and instead appointed the Supreme Court of New York to hear and decide the collection suit at first instance. Van Dam challenged the legality and constitutionality of this act but he lost on a vote of two to one. Two Supreme Court justices voted in favor of the constitutionality of Cosby’s act while the lone dissenter was Justice Lewis Morris. Later, Cosby demanded Morris to explain why he voted against him. Morris filed his explanation via an open letter which was published by Zenger. As a result, Morris was fired and replaced by James Delancey. (The Trial) After he was fired, Morris founded the Popular Party together with Van Dam and lawyer James Alexander, under which Morris ran as candidate for Assemblyman. His victory was reported in great detail in the maiden issue of the New York Weekly Journal published on November 5, 1733 which was owned by the partnership of Zenger and Alexander. For months, The New York Weekly Journal publish ed attacks and criticisms against the unpopular incumbent governor. Alexander writes the articles and Zenger prints them. (The Trial) When these attacks came out, Cosby tried but failed to get an indictment from the Grand Jury on the ground that the author of the said attacks is unknown. In response, an outraged Cosby issued an order dated October 22, 1734 mandating that issue numbers 7, 47, 48 and 49 of The New York Weekly Journal â€Å"be burned by the hands of the common hangman or whipper†¦ as containing in them many things tending to sedition and faction, to bring His Majesty’s government into contempt.† (Order for the Public Burning of Zenger's Journals) At about the same time, Cosby also offered a reward of fifty pounds to whoever shall have information on the identity of the libelous publication’s authors. However, when there were no takers for his considerable offer, Attorney General Richard Bradley was ordered to file the information for seditious libel against Zenger, the only identifiable person behind the publications. After which, a bench warrant dated November 2, 1734 was issued for the arrest of Zenger. Among others, the warrant states that Zenger is facing charges for â€Å"printing and publishing several seditious libels dispersed throughout his journals or

Monday, August 26, 2019

Oscar Wildes Fashion Ugliness Argument Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Oscar Wildes Fashion Ugliness Argument - Essay Example The paper "Oscar Wilde’s Fashion Ugliness Argument" critically examines whether fashion has some ugliness. Oscar Wilde was arguably right in his observation that the mass market that produces and distributes fashion products is saturated with poor quality products, which are meant to appeal to the end-users within a short period of time as the manufacturers make millions of pounds in profits. Producing fashion items for global consumption generally takes precedent over creativity or individual vision. The skill and creativity in the design of tight undergarments, for example, takes a lesser role as far as creating the commodity is concerned. Serving hundreds of millions of consumers with such unhealthy clothes for â€Å"six months† requires quick production of simple fashion materials through cheap processes for selling multiple times over without paying attention at the health risks and or discomfort that it would pose to the wearers. The end-result is an â€Å"uglyâ €  fashion item that prevents the wearer from freely engaging in his or her everyday duties. In addition, owing to the priority of contemporary corporate bodies that design and produce fashion items to make profits, it is apparent that short-term gains cannot coexist with quality and the â€Å"inner† attraction of fashion items. Profit demands continuous generation of unique designs that are easy to manufacture such as backless blouses for women. Once a fashion design has been accepted, usually by individuals who are under the pressure to generate more revenue.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

The Anthropology of Latin America and the Caribbean weekly reflection Assignment

The Anthropology of Latin America and the Caribbean weekly reflection - Assignment Example n, Jewish, Buddhist, Hindu, Baha’i, Islamic, Protestant, Evangelical and indigenous religions and denominations exist in Latin America and the Caribbean (Harry, 184). The way of life of Latin Americans and the Caribbean varies greatly from one part of the region to another given the many ethnic groupings and different ancestries. Additionally, the author writes that various Afro-Latin American practices such as Macumba and Santeria are prevalent among Latin Americans and the Caribbean. Particularly, evangelism is an incessantly increasing practice in the Latin American and Caribbean religion. The region of Latin America and the Caribbean experiences several health challenges. In the view of Harry, he notes that the main health challenge in the region is the persistent high maternal and infant mortality rates (Harry, 211). There are diarrheal and respiratory diseases. In addition, the author points out vaccine-preventable infections as one of the leading causes of deaths in the region. Further, there are drug resistant infectious agents. Food and drugs are inadequate supply is another health issue. Harry further notes that health personnel have increasingly emigrated from the region, impeding the efforts to make healthcare services satiable. These health problems are under surveillance and responsible governments are working on making the health condition of the citizens of the countries in the region better. Harry notes that Latin America and the Caribbean region are so diverse that it holds various cuisines which vary from nation to another. One of the most cherished dishes in the region is maize-based cuisine. Tamales, pupusas and tortillas are the most popular of the maize dishes. In addition, Harry notes that salsas and other condiments such as pico de gallo, mole and guacamole are also popular. Although the spices give the Latin American cuisine the characteristic, unique taste they have, different countries use different spices. Even those nations that

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Discussion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 46

Discussion - Essay Example The law provides the direction to be used in paying workers that dedicate their extra hours in the business, better known as overtime (Beck, 2011). The wages and hours Act guides the business on employment of children below the required legal age. In this case, according to this act, children below 18 years should not be employed especially in risky jobs. In the agricultural sector, children below 16 years should not be employed to work during school days; instead, they should be given time to take their studies. One of the laws that has the biggest impact on business practices is the sexual harassment law. Initially, people thought that sexual harassment was only meant for women; however, a court decision happened to increase the scope of this law by including same-sex sexual harassment (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014). This came after some male employees in an oil company complained of sexual harassment from other male employees, including unwanted touching and a crude sex play. This decision is important in business practices because it aims at punishing those people fond of sexually harassing fellow employees. Sometimes, people may want to perform certain activities without knowing the boundaries they should go. This decision spells the extent to which people should make their interactions in the work place. It is important to note that some laws can be actually outdated and have to be amended. Changing lifestyles often mean news ways of life in human societies and the same should be for their laws governing their existence (Brooks & Weatherston, 2011). For instance, the sexual harassment law was initially meant to protect the welfare of women employees at the work place. However, male employees have also reported sexual harassment form other male employees and even female employees, something that has necessitated its reform and amendment. The age

Friday, August 23, 2019

A Correlation between Unequal Power Relations and the Way Language is Assignment

A Correlation between Unequal Power Relations and the Way Language is Used - Assignment Example The second of the three stages is all the more important because it has a lot to do with one’s spontaneity and judgment which ultimately become the major deciding factors in making the communication successful and effective. That is how the world draws the line of distinction between ‘great orators/authors’ and the mediocre and the bad. The choice of words, however, is a function of one’s instincts, emotions, and needs. The desire to dominate, to control, to feel powerful is a universal instinct that defies the boundaries of time and space. It is, therefore, not at all surprising that this basic instinct, or rather a base instinct, successfully manages to creep into all human transactions and manifests itself, more noticeably in the process of verbal communication. But, at the same time, the need to ‘get things done’ is also a matter of uppermost concern, and its importance cannot be understated. It is this factor that has the power to suppress the urge to dominate; it makes one willing to subordinate himself in a transaction. In any given instance, it is either the urge to dominate or the need to subordinate that finally stays, and it is decided by the prevailing equation of power in the given context. It boils down to the conclusion that â€Å"our words are never neutral; they carry the power that reflects the interests of those who speak or write.† (John Fiske, 1994; Fowler, et. al., 1979) An interesting quality of dominant discourse is that it usually represents and reinforces the interests of the elite section of the society. Professor Sue L. T. McGregor, in Critical Discourse Analysis – A Primer, says, â€Å"One of the central attributes of dominant discourse is its power to interpret conditions, issues, and events in favor of the elite.†   

Indias Stable Democracy Puzzle Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Indias Stable Democracy Puzzle - Essay Example This essay stresses that India's democracy, however, faces a grave challenge due to the country's substantial association with governance and religion as well as cultural practices. Unlike most countries in world such as the USA and other western countries, India has incorporated religious values in the formulation of its constitution used to rule. Up to date, religious symbols are used in public places to depict the country's deep roots in religion. These include shrines where one has to bow whenever they pass them. The country's justice system is also based on religious and cultural values but not a democratically accepted constitution. This paper makes a conclusion that a lot of controversies exist to date concerning the origin of India's democracy. Most people hold the view that democracy was introduced to the country by the British colonialists. From my view, it is the British who influenced the democracy in its colonies after their independence. The Queen of England at the time India became a colony, promised the Indians that their cultural and religious beliefs would not be interfered with following the tremendous resistance that the colonialists faced in an attempt to introduce their own. This was a major building block for the country democracy which was furthered by able leaders after independence. On the other hand, other scholars think that democracy was still present even before colonization. According to them, the East India Company that ruled the country before the British invasion had introduced democracy in the country.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Gender Socialization Essay Example for Free

Gender Socialization Essay Every child is born to a particular society which has its set of values, norms and belief system. The first stage of socialization of the child is the family to which he/she is born. As the child grows, he/she is introduced to the way life is lived and the role he or she is to play in the family and the society. When a child is born, the first question that anybody asks is ‘is it a boy or a girl? †. This is the beginning of gender socialization. From that point, the clothes the child wears, the kind of treatment that is given to the child and the things that are expected of the child becomes distinguished. UNICEF defined gender socialization as â€Å"a process of learning cultural roles according to ones sex, and provides examples of ways in which these are incorporated through parental and societal expectations from boys and girls† ( VAWnet, 2004). Taking a queue from my life experience and from my knowledge of socialization, I will say that the traits I see myself exhibiting are rubbed off on me as a result of my family socialization. At a very tender age, I grew to recognize my role in the family and how to relate with the elderly. My father taught me how to be a man and how to live the life of integrity and boldness, which he considered a necessity of any man. Furthermore, I grew up with an idea that some jobs were for ladies while some were for men. I was taught that men are strong and do not cave in to their emotions. I was taught how to be a fearless, courageous and decent young man and how it is my responsibility to look out for my family. Although I do not stay with my father and mother again, I still see some attributes of my father in me and sometimes when I do something, I smile and attribute that thing to what I learnt when I was growing up. Summarily, I believe no matter how hard we try not to draw a line between both sexes, the fact is we all have our roles in the society. Reference: http://new. vawnet. org/category/index_pages. php? category_id=813 â€Å"Gender Socialization† (2004). Retrieved on November 21, 2008.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Development Of An Automatic Class Scheduler

Development Of An Automatic Class Scheduler Regarding the rapid growth of the number of students and the increasing number of courses offered in school, colleges and institution, the task of scheduling classes to fit into timetables and into existing facilities is becoming much more complicated. At the present time, class scheduling not only needs to fit the courses offered but also has to be performed based on many factors, such as availability and capacity of the room, cost occurred when the rooms are engaged by any courses, losses occurred when the rooms are left out, etc. Class Scheduler is an easy to use single or multi-user application for scheduling students classes. The software is ideal for schools, colleges and other institutions that must create class schedules. Class Scheduler can be used by a single teacher or by a group of students to schedule classes. The idea behind Class Scheduler is to increase the productivity of classroom administrators by automating the class scheduling process by automatically setting up course times and assigning rooms and instructors. We can view course schedule, student schedule, instructor schedule and classroom schedule online. We can also resolve clashes without effort, and preferences of staff and students action with ease and serves a clash-free and error-free timetable. It also saves time and labour. 2. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Timetable creation for has always been an error-prone task, normally resulting in multiple iterations of creation and proof-reading. Changes desired by teaching staff, changes of course locations etc. also require an adaptation of the previously created timetables. Traditional approach to generation of timetable had great difficulties due to large search space which were created as a result of number of variables that need to be considered in such problems. Hence the objective of this project is to automatically generate time tables for the betterment of the teaching staff students. PROBLEM STATEMENT The manual system of preparing Time Table in colleges with large number of students is very time consuming and usually ends up with various class clashes either at same time or with same teacher, having more than one class at a time. These are just due to common human error which are very difficult to prevent in processes as these. To overcome these problem people usually end up making injudicious use of classrooms and labs. To overcome all these problems we propose to make an automated system. INTRODUCTION CLASS SCHEDULER is the online timetable generator for schools, colleges and any other institutions that must create class schedules. CLASS SCHEDULER offers functionality for generating timetables (for students or teachers) as well as overview timetables, i.e. all courses in a certain semester for any given degree. This study is expected to solve those problems and improve the qualitative aspects of generating schedules as follows: Shortening the time in establishing the timetables with computer assistance and better information. Easing the procedure of establishing the timetables Establishing the timetables according to maximize facilities utilization and instructors preferences. Developing an interactive computer link to facilitate data output and the interpretation of the results. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM The project aims at developing an automated Time Table generator. The system will take various inputs like details of student, subjects, classrooms and teachers available. Depending upon these inputs it will generate a possible Time Table. Making optimal utilization of all the resources such as rooms and labs and distributing classes in a way that will best suit any of constraints or college rules. List of subjects may include elective as well as core subjects. Features: Simple Data Entry: It is quick and easy to enter information of all subjects, years (FE, SE, TE, BE), courses ( computer science, extc, bio-medical), Rooms and teachers. Automatic generation: In few minutes, the program generates a complete timetable that fulfills all your requirements. The program follows all organizational requirements such as selection for number of working days of the week, zero (attendance) period insertion. Subjects could be entered considering subject in which classroom, single or double duration consecutively, periods per week per subject. Periods could be entered with considerations of maximum number of consecutive periods per teacher. Teachers could be placed with considerations such as class should not be assigned when teacher is not free i.e ABC teacher should not be given any class on Monday. XYZ teacher should not get 1st and 2 period on all days etc. Also considering teachers getting x number of maximum periods, minimum/maximum periods per day, limit number of consecutive periods. Automatic Reports for Printing, Website: Reports for website could be generated for the following: Summary timetable for classes Summary timetable for teachers Summary timetable for rooms year wise time table Teacher wise time table All classes assigned to a teacher ( no. of periods per week bifurcations) Total number of periods subject wise Checking of total Working Hours per week details for the teachers PROCESS FLOWS ER-DIAGRAM DATA FLOW DIAGRAM Context Level Diagram Level 1 DFD CLASS SCHEDULER is a system in which automatic timetable is generated by considering various constraints in the system. It also provides the login facility. System takes the required data provided by class coordinator and performs function to generate time table. A professor logs in and can view the required time table. Professor can request for modification which is forwarded to system by coordinator system generates the alternate timetable, coordinator views the generated timetable and accepts or rejects the modification. If modification is accepted then the received timetable is stored in database. If the request is rejected then it is informed to requestor that request cannot be processed. This all activities are shown in the data flow diagram (Level 0) also called as context free diagram. Level 2 DFD INPUTS: It takes various input required by system that are professor information and various data required about that professor. It also takes input of subjects and the relevant information required. The classroom and lab information are also provided. This all data are provided by coordinator. GENERATION OF TIMETABLE: It takes the information provided by the coordinator and consider the various constraints provided. It generate professor schedule and the respective schedule is entered in the class schedule, while generating the schedule it also checks that no timeslot redundancy occur i.e; no single slot is allotted to a two or more professor. Two type of timetable is generated: class wise and professor wise, this both timetable are stored in database by this process. This stored timetable is used as and when required by the users. DISPLAY TIMETABLE Whenever user login the system it provides various option of displaying timetable. User select the required options , the request is then analyzed by the system and in accordance to the request made the required timetable is displayed. The system provides the online view of timetable. MODIFICATION After the time table is generated the provision is made to view them in various options , timetable is displayed as per the user requirement. The professor views the timetable and if required he/she request for modification. This modification request is forwarded manually to the coordinator which in turn is forwarded to the system. The system then generates the alternate timetable .this alternate timetable is then viewed by the coordinator. He then decides whether the change is propagated or the request cannot be considered. If request is not considered then it informs the requestor about it. STRUCTURE CHART DIAGRAM USE CASE DIAGRAM Display timetable Login Generate timetable Modify timetable Professor student coordinator Use cases involved in the system are: LOGIN: User logs in the system by entering user name and password. If user name or password is invalid, the system display error message. GENERATE TIMETABLE: The system generates the timetable according to the input data provided to it by considering different constraints. MODIFY TIMETABLE: The system takes the request from user and generates new timetable. DISPLAY TIMETABLE: The system displays the timetable in a format requested by the user. Actors involved in the system are: PROFESSOR: Professor views the timetable online which is generated by the system and if it is inconvenient for professor then he/she requests for modification in timetable. STUDENT: Students view and follow the timetable generated by the system. CO-ORDINATOR: It is an actor who is responsible for managing the system. 1 UC1 Login Brief Description UC1.1 This use case helps user to login to the system. Flow of Events Basic Flow UC1.2 To login in to the system: system asks the user to enter his/her login id password The user enters his/her login id password The system validates the id the password System displays the Homepage of the college Alternative Flows UC1.3 If id is wrong System displays message wrong Id UC1.4 If password is wrong System displays message wrong password Special Requirements UC1.5 At least one character must be an alphabet Preconditions UC1.6 User must be registered Post Conditions System displays the Homepage of the college 1Generate Timetable Generate Timetable UC1 Brief Description UC1.1 This use case helps coordinator to generate timetable Flow of Events Basic Flow 11111111111111111111111111111111kkkkk1. Coordinator logs in 2. System asks for input data 3. Coordinator enters data 4. System generates timetable Alternative Flows UC1.3 Incorrect data entry System cannot generate timetable, displays error message UC1.4 Insufficient availability of rooms and labs. System generates incomplete timetable, displays warning statement Special Requirements UC1.5 Professor should be available for all time slots Preconditions UC1.6 At least one professor should be assigned to a subject Post Conditions Provide various option of displaying the timetable 1Modify Timetable Modify Timetable UC1 Brief Description UC1.1 This use case helps System to modify the timetable according to feedback provided by the professor Flow of Events Basic Flow 11111111111111111111111111111111kkkkk1. Professor request for change of timings for his lectures 2. Coordinator feeds the request 3. System generates new timetable and requests Coordinator for updating 4. Coordinator approves the modified timetable 5. System revises the timetable Alternative Flows UC1.3 Coordinator rejects the modified timetable Original timetable is retained Preconditions UC1.6 Professors request should be within college time slots Post Conditions Revised timetable should be displayed 1Display Timetable Display Timetable UC1 Brief Description UC1.1 This use case helps System to display the revised timetable in various formats Flow of Events Basic Flow 11111111111111111111111111111111kkkkk1. User logs in 2. System provides option for selecting different formats of timetable 3. User selects the required option 4. System displays the timetable in requested format Alternative Flows UC1.3 Login is incorrect If login is incorrect, system displays invalid login UU Preconditions UC1.6 Timetable should exist 7. CONCLUSION This study has examined the possibility of implementing the concept of assignment of lectures for the class scheduling process. The advantage of this system is that it would be able to applied not only to similar scheduling problems and be extended to various types of problem sharing the same concept. The model has to be able to reduce the number of activities in the scheduling process.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Electroconvulsive Therapy for Severe Depression: Evaluation

Electroconvulsive Therapy for Severe Depression: Evaluation Can electroconvulsive therapy make a meaningful contribution in the treatment of Severe depressive illness? The work of mental health nurses. Contents Abstract Introduction Methodology of the review Critical Review of the literature The place of electroconvulsive therapy in the therapeutic armamentarium The place of electroconvulsive therapy in relapse prevention Mechanism of action Preference of site of stimulation Side effects of treatment Discussion Conclusions Appendix References Abstract This dissertation seeks to explore the evidence base for electroconvulsive therapy. It does so by considering the historical background to the procedure and its evolution to the present. It considers the professional and legislative guidelines which govern its use and contrasts the regulations in the UK with those in other cultures, notably the USA. In order to assist the exploration, the literature review is subdivided into five sections, each exploring a different area of interest. Electroconvulsive therapy is placed within a therapeutic spectrum of treatment for patients with major depressive illness and psychosis and is compared with other modalities of treatment. Its use in both acute treatment and its role in disease prevention and relapse is discussed. Current hypotheses of its possible mode of action are explored, and conclusions drawn about the strength of the evidence base in this area. There appears to be considerable discussion about the site of optimal stimulation for electroconvulsive therapy. This area is discussed in depth with a critical analysis of the studies which inform the evidence base in this area. The literature review concludes with an examination of the various side effects of the treatment. There is an element of discussion of the evidence and conclusions are drawn from the evidence extrapolated and presented. The whole dissertation is fully referenced. Introduction Electroconvulsive therapy was introduced into clinical practice in the late 1930s and rapidly gained a place in the standard treatment of major depressive illness. It was originated by the Hungarian, Dr Meduna, who mistakenly believed that schizophrenia and epilepsy were mutually exclusive conditions. He argued that epilepsy was never seen in schitzophrenic patients and therefore artificially inducing fits (epilepsy) in patients would cure schizophrenia. (Mowbray R M 1959). The effects on schitzophrenia were soon recognised to be minor and the most marked effect appeared to be in the patients with major depressive illness. The advent of effective classes of antidepressant, antipsychotic and mood stabilising drugs has seen a marked decline in the use of electroconvulsive therapy, but recent figures suggest that it is still used in over 10,000 cases per year in the UK (ECT Survey 2003). Currently the main use of electroconvulsive therapy is in major depressive illness although it also is considered still to have a place in the treatment of schizophrenia and some other mood disorders (UK ECT 2003), psychosis (Corrible E et al. 2004), and overt suicidal intent (Kellner C H et al. 2005). The Mental Health Act of 1983 allowed Psychiatrists to give electroconvulsive therapy to inpatients without consent if they were sectioned. This should be contrasted to the situation after the 1959 Mental Health Act, where psychiatrists had no clear guidance and a number of litigation cases forced a change in legislation. (Duffett R et al. 1998) The procedure itself involves anaesthetising the patient with a general anaesthetic and a muscle relaxant and the a small, brief pulse current (typically about 800 milliamperes) is passed between two electrodes applied directly to the scalp. This generates a seizure and there are a number of demonstrable biochemical changes in the brain after the event. (Nobler M S et al. 2001) Electroconvulsive therapy is usually given as a course over several weeks. The evidence base for length of time of treatment is not strong and appears to vary considerably between authorities. (Lisanby S H 2007) In 2003 NICE investigated the evidence base for electroconvulsive therapy and issued guidelines which suggested that it should only be used only to achieve rapid and short-term improvement of severe symptoms after an adequate trial of treatment options has proven ineffective and/or when the condition is considered to be potentially life-threatening in individuals with severe depressive illness, catatonia or a prolonged manic episode. (NICE 2003) One of the most extensive recent reviews on electroconvulsive therapy concluded that it had been demonstrated to be effective short term treatment for depressive illness in otherwise healthy adults. Many studies were cited and had shown it to have a greater effect than drug treatment. The authors noted shortcomings in many of the trials cited, especially in areas such as drug resistant depressive illness where electroconvulsive therapy is believed to be particularly helpful. (UK ECT Review Group 2003) One of the major side effects of electroconvulsive therapy is short and long term memory loss cited in many trials and studies (viz Gupta N 2001) Methodology of the review Cormack suggests that â€Å"Ultimately all good research is guided by and founded on a critical review of all of the relevant literature published on the subject.† (Cormack, D. 2000). It is therefore important not only to define what is currently believed about a subject, but also to place this in a historical context. This is particularly important in the field of electroconvulsive therapy, as the introduction to this dissertation has suggested, with great fluctuations in both understanding and application of this type of therapy over the years. One of the prime reasons for conducting a literature review is to establish the current evidence base for a particular subject. A critical review of the literature must be preceded by a careful literature search. It is often believed that searching the literature is a linear or â€Å"single episode† process. Current thinking suggests that this is seldom an optimal strategy. Bowling advises that a good literature review is â€Å"primarily a cyclical recursive process that mirrors the thinking and research process, where the discovery of new information results in new ideas, new knowledge and possibly new understanding. Once an overview, or initial opinion has been formed, it then becomes possible to revisit the initial reviews from a more informed perspective which, in turn, allows for a more perceptive interpretation of the data. (Bowling A 2002). The methodology used in this particular review was to allow for an initial period of reflection on the subject matter and to consult a small number of reference books to achieve an overview of the area. (Taylor, E. 2000). References were noted and some followed up in order to ascertain the main themes of the review. Once these were established, then methodical searches of a number of databases were carried out utilising the facilities of the local University library, the Post-graduate library (Client to personalise here) and a number of on-line search engines and literary sources including Cochrane, Cinhal, Ovid, BMJ and Lancet archives, Royal College of Psychiatrists archive and various NICE publications. Papers were accessed in both hard back and electronic forms. (Fink A 1998) Search terms included electroconvulsive therapy; evidence base; evolution; history; schizophrenia; psychosis; major depressive illness; mental health nurse; antidepressant drugs; Mental Health Act; psychiatrist. These terms were used in various combinations to sift papers with varying degrees of relevance to the topic under consideration. (Carr LT 1994) Inclusion criteria were papers less than 10 years old (unless there were specific reasons for older paper inclusion). UK sources were preferred to other ones. It should be noted that a substantial proportion of the body of literature on the subject of electroconvulsive therapy is American based. A number of authorities have suggested that this may be because the USA currently uses electroconvulsive therapy more frequently than the UK and therefore has a greater experience with it. Papers were only considered from peer reviewed sources unless making a historical point. (Bell J 1999). Each paper considered was then ranked according to its evidential value (See Appendix 1) and the highest value paper was presented for each point to be made. Critical Review of the literature The place of electroconvulsive therapy in the therapeutic armamentarium A good place to start this literature review is with the Olfsen paper. (Olfson M et al. 1998). This is an authoritative overview of the place of electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment spectrum. It has to be noted that this paper is already 10 years old and reflects clinical patterns of usage in the USA. The reason that this paper is selected for discussion is primarily on the vast size of its study cohort, which is 6.5 million patient contacts (249,600 with a diagnosis of depressive illness) spread over mainland USA. Critical analysis of the paper suggests that the authors reveal their viewpoint in the first few sentences of the paper and therefore the opinion part of the review must be understood on the basis that the authors consider electroconvulsive therapy a â€Å"safe and effective treatment for patients with all subtypes of major depression† citing the authority of the APA for this statement (APA 1997) The paper suggests that there is a strong evidence base to confirm that electroconvulsive therapy is at least as effective as antidepressant drugs pharmaceuticals for the treatment of major depressive illness. (Weiner R D 2004) The authors make the point that despite this general belief, electroconvulsive therapy is not as widely used as it should be due to three major misconceptions namely public concern about the safety of the procedure, reactive regulations and guidelines and the belief that it is not cost-effective. They then set about addressing each of these concerns Rather worryingly, the authors cite evidence of safety with the unqualified comment that â€Å"None of the depressed patients who received ECT died during the hospitalisation. In contrast, 30 (0.14%) of the depressed patients who did not receive ECT died in the hospital. (Schulz K F et al. 1995) Although this may well be the case, it is entirely possible that patients who were ill with other comorbidities (and therefore at greater risk of death) were not offered electroconvulsive therapy, as it required a general anaesthetic. One cannot jump to the implied conclusion that these figures suggest that electroconvulsive therapy is therefore intrinsically safe. (Mohammed, D et al. 2003) The authors draw a number of conclusions, perhaps the most significant of which is that current practice tends to reserve electroconvulsive therapy for the elderly, and those with comorbidities such as schizophrenia, dementia, and general medical (nonpsychiatric) disorders. They also comment that prompt use of electroconvulsive therapy is associated with shorter in patient stays and, by definition, more rapid resolution of the depressive state. Despite these findings, there is a large body of literature documenting the fact that many patients with major depressive illness remain largely unresponsive to therapeutic intervention. With this in mind one should consider the contribution of the Spanish research group under Gonzalez-Pinto who published a trial of a small group of patients (13) who had proved resistant to both venlafaxine and electroconvulsive therapy separately but who responded to both measures when used in a combined fashion. (Gonzalez-Pinto A et al. 2002). This was a non-randomised non-controlled trial and therefore constitutes evidence value at level III. Curiously the response was not proportional to the dose of venlafaxine used. The authors however, report the rather worrying side effect of asystole in 3 of the 13 patients immediately after the electroconvulsive therapy. A number of authorities suggest that there is a definite place for electroconvulsive therapy in the severely depressed patient who is a suicidal risk. The Kellner paper addresses this suggestion directly. (Kellner C H et al. 2005). Suicide remains one of the major associations of major depressive illness and carries a 15% lifetime risk for any patient who has been hospitalised with the same. (Bostwick J M et al. 2000) with symptoms such as profound hopelessness, hypochondriacal ruminations or delusions, and thoughts of suicide or self-harm during depression predict future suicide. (Schneider B et al. 2001). The Kellner study was a randomised crossover comparative follow-up trial making it evidence value of level 1b. There are a great many result strands from this study, but if one specifically considers the suicidal elements, then one can state that the study showed that of the 444 patients enrolled in the trial as having major depressive illness, 26% had suicidal ideation at a level of 3 or greater on the Hamilton rating scale (the measurement tool used in the trial) and 3% achieving a score of 4 (actual suicidal attempt). This group had a reduction of their scores to 0 in over 80% within the two week course of the electroconvulsive therapy. It was also reported that in the group who scored 4, 100% dropped to 0 by the end of the treatment. Despite there impressive figures for short term remission, one would have to note that the trial did not have any significant long term follow-up and there is no information on the rate of relapse after the initial treatment. (Rosenthal R. 1994). The authors state that they were aware of two successful suicide attempts which occurred whilst the trial was running (but after these patients had completed their treatment. The authors suggest that electroconvulsive therapy should be used early in the treatment regime once a diagnosis of suicidal risk has been made. To provide a balanced argument on the place of electroconvulsive therapy in the spectrum of treatment, one can consider the recent paper by Eranti (Eranti S et al. 2007) who tested out the hypothesis that has recently been published, that Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is as effective as electroconvulsive therapy but does not have the same side effect profile that restricts the use of electroconvulsive therapy in some patients. (viz. Gershon A A et al. 2003 and Loo C K et al. 2005) This trial was a randomised, blinded comparative trial with a substantial entry cohort (260 patients) being followed up for 6 months after treatment giving it a level 1b significance. (Clifford C 1997). There were a number of possible outcome measures studied but, of relevance to our considerations in this dissertation, one can state that the authors found that Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was not as effective as electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of depressive illness both at the end of the treatment period and at the end of the 6 month study. The authors were able to comment however, that the rTMS was virtually free of demonstrable side effects. The place of electroconvulsive therapy in relapse prevention It is fair to comment that a brief examination of the literature shows virtually no good quality published material on this topic with the studies that have been done comprising individual case reports (viz Kramer B A 1990), naturalistic studies and small studies of retrospective cases (viz. Schwarz T et al. 1995), none of which have any control element and all of which are evidence level IV at best. A notable exception is Keller et al. who made a large UK based study of relapse prevention in major depressive illness with a randomised controlled trial over a seven year period involving over 500 patients. (Kellner C H et al. 2006). The trial is a level 1b evidence level trial and is of a particularly robust structure with great efforts made to achieve standardisation. (Denscombe, M 2002). The structure is a direct comparison between electroconvulsive therapy and a standard pharmacological regime (lithium carbonate plus nortriptyline hydrochloride). Both were given as a therapeutic course (the medication over a six month period) and the patients were followed up with DSM-IV assessments to determine their degree of relapse The analysis is long and complex but, in essence, the study clearly demonstrated that both groups had better results than a placebo control with similar percentages (about 33%) suffering a relapse and about 46% remaining disease free. The trial suffered from having a large group (about 20%) failing to complete the trial protocol. (Rosenthal R. 1994). This study does however, provide firm evidence that electroconvulsive therapy is at least as effective as pharmacological measures in reducing the likelihood of clinical relapse. Further evidence for longer term efficacy comes from the Gagnà © study (Gagnà © G G et al. 2000), which starts by acknowledging the fact that depressive illness tends to be a long term disability with long term pharmacological intervention a comparatively normal treatment strategy. The authors make a subtle distinction between continuance therapy (which is starting a new course of treatment after initial resolution and then relapse) and maintenance therapy which extends beyond the continuation therapy stage and is aimed at preventing relapse. This paper is noteworthy because, as the authors point out, there is general acceptance by healthcare professionals that long term maintenance therapy with pharmaceuticals is both rational and indicated in patients with a high likelihood of relapse of depressive illness. Treatment with continuation electroconvulsive therapy has failed to gain general acceptance. The authors argue that such an approach is particularly rational, at least in a group of patients who have demonstrated their ability to respond to electroconvulsive therapy in the past, are at high risk of relapse and who may be refractory to pharmacological intervention. The Gagnà © study is a retrospective case-controlled comparative study comparing the long term course of electroconvulsive therapy plus pharmacological maintenance therapy with long-term antidepressant treatment alone in a demographically matched group. The two groups comprised 60 patients. The maintainence electroconvulsive therapy group received the electroconvulsive therapy as a single treatment monthly after the normal intensive treatment course for the acute episode. It has to be noted that this regime is comparatively arbitrary as there appears to be no preceding published evidence base to support it. The results from this study are nonetheless quite impressive. Both groups are reported to have responded to treatment, but the group who were also maintained with follow up electroconvulsive therapy did markedly better in terms of resistance to relapse being almost doubled at two years (93% vs. 52%), and quadrupled at five years (73% vs. 18%). This result could also be expressed as a doubling of the mean time to relapse in the electroconvulsive therapy group (6.9 years versus 2.7 years for the antidepressant-alone group). A major criticism of this study would have to be a lack of standardisation of treatment in the electroconvulsive therapy group with some patients receiving univocal and others bipolar electroconvulsive therapy. The number and duration of each was left â€Å"to the clinical judgement† of the responsible clinician. This does not reduce the impact of the overall finding, but does make for difficulties in comparison with any other trials which might follow. (Berlin J A et al. 1999) A critical analysis of the study would also have to conclude that the study suffered from a comparatively small number of patients with assignments to the comparison groups not being random. More importantly, the trial assessor was not blinded to the patients group assignment. These factors make it difficult to confidently assign an evidence level to this trial. (Denzin, N K et al. 2000) The authors conclude their study with the comment that a larger, prospective study on the subject is currently underway. One should perhaps regard the results of this study as interesting, but not proven. In assessing the validity of this paper, one should note comments that it has generated in the peer reviewed press. Gupta makes a number of valid points of criticism (Gupta N. 2001), arguably the most important of which is that the study did not make any measurement of the well recognised effect on memory function that short term electroconvulsive therapy is known to have. (Isenberg K E et al. 2001). Gupta suggests that clinical effectiveness must be assessed only after a risk-benefit ratio has been properly determined. Certainly a valid point and one that was not addressed in the original paper. Mechanism of action A number of papers have been published reporting biochemical changes after electroconvulsive therapy. There seems to be a general agreement that depressive illness is associated with a disturbance in the monoaminergic-cholinergic balance within the cerebral cortex. (Schatzberg A F et al. 2005). A novel and significant advance was published in 1998 by Avissar (Avissar S et al. 1998) when a correlation with G-protein levels in leucocytes was found and was discovered to be significantly reduced in depressive illness. The significance of this paper was that the authors found that electroconvulsive therapy resulted in a normalisation of the G-proteins level which preceded (by about a week), and thus predicted, clinical improvement. Patients who did not respond to electroconvulsive therapy did not show a change in G-protein levels. The significance of this finding is enhanced with the knowledge that lithium is also known to alter G-protein levels (Schreiber G et al. 2000), as are some other treatments for bipolar disorder. (Young L T et al. 2003). It is also known the G-protein levels are raised in manic states thereby suggesting that it is a marker for affective mood states. (Schreiber G et al. 2001) Further evidence of altered metabolism comes from the Nobler study (Nobler M S et al. 2001). This study used Positron emission tomography (PET) to study glucose metabolism in different brain areas. It has to be noted that this was a small study of 10 patients who were assessed before and after a course of electroconvulsive therapy. This study involved highly sophisticated measurements and concluded that certain areas of the brain showed marked reduction in metabolic rate after electroconvulsive therapy and these changes were most significant in the frontal, prefrontal, and parietal cortices. The authors suggest that their results support the hypothesis that electroconvulsive therapy works by suppression of functional (non trophic) brain activity, most prominently in the prefrontal cortex. The authors comment that their findings are consistent with the earlier Drevets study which demonstrated a reduction in brain metabolism after successful treatment with antidepressant drugs. (Drevet s W C 1998) A more modern paper by Sanacora reported alterations in the GABA concentrations in plasma, and cortex after electroconvulsive therapy. (Sanacora G et al. 2003). It is known that patients with depressive illness have reduced levels of the neurotransmitter GABA. This study, again with a small entry cohort of 10 patients, assessed patients before and after electroconvulsive therapy. It was found that the levels of GABA increased with successive treatments. It was also found that the length of duration of the convulsions was proportional to the concentrations of GABA found in the cortex supporting the view that GABA decreases cortical excitability. It may also be significant that GABA concentrations have been found to increase after the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. (Sanacora G et al. 2002). These findings suggest that enhanced GABA activity may be central to any antidepressant activity Takano et al. have recently produced a yet more sophisticated study along the lines of the Nobler investigation. (Takano H et al. 2007). This study also uses positron emission tomography (PET) and it studied patients before, during and after the application of electroconvulsive therapy. This is essentially a technical rather than a clinical study. It also has to be noted that all the data was derived from only six patients. The majority of the results are therefore not relevant to this consideration other than the fact that the authors concluded that electroconvulsive therapy exerts its effect by increasing the post treatment blood supply to the anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortex and thalamus. They refine this comment by acknowledging that it cannot be stated that this observed phenomenon is cause or effect, but simply an association with the mechanism of treatment and is associated with a resolution of symptoms. Preference of site and nature of stimulation There is a great deal of discussion in the peer reviewed literature about the optimal sites for electroconvulsive therapy application and whether univocal or bipolar stimulation gives better results. Unfortunately the vast majority of it is anecdotal and of poor evidential value. The Bailine study is a notable exception providing a randomised comparative trial with a moderate size of entry cohort (60) making it a level 1b trial. (Bailine S H et al. 2000). The authors compared the efficacy of bitemporal stimulation with bifrontal stimulation over a treatment period of 12 treatments. The study was assessor blinded. The rationale behind the trial was that bifrontal stimulation avoids direct stimulation of the temporal areas which are directly involved with cognition and memory functions. The authors reported that they found both placements to be equally effective in their ability to relieve depressive illness, but the bifrontal positioning achieved statistical significance in reducing cognitive and memory effects. Although not directly tested, the authors comment that right sided unilateral frontal placement has fewer cognitive side effects than bilateral stimulation but needs 2 5 times the current to achieve its therapeutic effect. (citing Letemendia F J J et al. 1993) One area of difficulty which, even a brief overview of the subject illuminates, is the level of stimulus that is required to achieve therapeutic results. Some studies do not specify the level of stimulus, others simply refer to a supra-threshold stimulus, a third group refer to a â€Å"titration of stimulusâ€Å". This makes direct comparison of results difficult. Some authorities have made the comment that not standardising the level of stimulus applied is similar to conducting a comparative trial of antidepressant drugs to placebo when the drugs are given at a sub-optimal dosage and therefore not achieving their maximal therapeutic effect. Krystal has attempted to tackle this problem by reviewing the regulations governing the administration of electroconvulsive therapy and also trying to achieve a generally acceptable standard of treatment. (Krystal A D et al. 2000) The USA limits (by statute) the maximum output charge for clinical applications of electroconvulsive therapy to 576 millicoulombs. The equivalent restriction in the UK is 1,200 millicoulombs for electroconvulsive therapy devices and this has been determined by the Royal College of Psychiatrists, and this limit is more than double the limit allowed in the USA. As far as the USA is concerned there is no evidence base to ensure that this limit will allow for consistently effective electroconvulsive therapy, which is something of a paradox considering that the USA considers electroconvulsive therapy more mainstream than does the UK. Krystal published a retrospective study of nearly 500 patients who had received electroconvulsive therapy. Although most of the patients reviewed had a clinically successful treatment, the authors noted that 15% of patients required the maximum stimulus intensity to trigger a seizure and 5% of the total did not have a seizure at all. The authors comment that the clinicians responsible for the patient had to use enhancing strategies to boost the therapeutic response with caffeine, ketamine, or hyperventilation. This still left a residual 5% of patients with a sub-therapeutic response at the maximum permitted output charge. Further problems can be encountered as not only can patients vary with regard to the amount of charge that they need to trigger tonic-clonic seizures, but the amount of charge can vary as the course of treatment progresses in each individual patient. (Coffey C E et al. 2005) The difficulty that therefore arises in these non-responders, is that there is no greater therapeutic response than placebo if a tonic-clonic seizure is not triggered, but the effects on cognition and memory impairment are still present. (PECT 2000). If this is added to the clinical and economic costs, it is clear that a case can be made for higher limits of initial triggering charge, at least in the USA. The other factor which may also be relevant and can be a major cause of inconsistency between studies is the pulse width with some electroconvulsive therapy machines delivering a shorter pulse width and longer stimulus duration than others. The majority deliver a pulse width between 0.5–0.75 msec. but other machines are capable of delivering pulse widths considerably beyond these limits. There has been no definitive study which has considered the possible effect of pulse width on either the therapeutic response or the likelihood of triggering a tonic-clonic seizure. The final point made in the Krystal paper is the fact that one of the reasons that the charge limit was set at the level that it is was the fact that the authorities wanted to minimise the theoretical risk of neuropathological damage. There is now evidence that the levels of stimulus charge necessary to cause such damage is far in excess of the imposed limits. (viz. Weiner R D 1994 and Devanand D P et al. 2004) The concept of stimulus titration is referred to in many of the clinically based papers reviewed. If this concept is considered in parallel with the comments by Krystal relating to the variation of charge required to produce the seizure, the situation can be clarified in an monograph by MacEwan who advises that it is an important feature of the treatment to allow sufficient time between the initial unsuccessful shock and the attempt at restimulation as the effect of the comparative refractivity after the first shock takes a little time to wear off. (MacEwan T 2002) Side effects of treatment Considering the rather gross and intrusive physical nature of the treatment, it is quite remarkable that the literature shows very few studies which have specifically explor

Monday, August 19, 2019

Upton Sinclairs The Jungle and the Meat-Packing Industry Today Essay

Meatpacking pertains to the raising, slaughtering, packaging and processing of livestock such as pigs, cows, and chickens. Prior to slaughter, animals are grown and fed. Food borne illness and pathogens still plague the meatpacking industry since the creation of meatpacking. The government plays a huge role in providing legislation and ensuring the safety of meat products and business. Although the government is meant to inspect and guarantee safety, many unlawful practices appear overlooked pertaining to the safety of meat for consumers. Meatpacking commenced thousands of years ago, and the safety of the meatpacking industry has been evaluated greatly since the industrial revolution in America. The history of the meatpacking industry in America, the impact of literature such as the novel of the jungle written by Upton Sinclair, the rendering and irradiation of meat, and current worker issues contribute to the horrible safety precautions as well as the awful environment inv olving the meatpacking industry. Meatpacking served as solely a family business up until the 17th century. As population in America grew immensely, industry as well as urbanization created a demand for meat product. Consequently, heavy industry quickly replaced traditional practices. Local meat stores grew into enormous companies and businesses that processed thousands of animals each day into fresh meat ("Meat Industry"). At the emergence of the 20th century, 4 major meat packing corporations took over small meatpacking companies and family owned businesses. The 4 major companies at the time consisted of the Armour, Swift, Morns, and national packing. The â€Å"Big Four† meat packing companies centralized their operations in a few cities ("BRIA 24 1 B ... ...s not a top priority. As the meat industry demonstrates a few pros, the cons outweigh drastically. Works Cited "BRIA 24 1 B Upton Sinclairs The Jungle: Muckraking the Meat-Packing Industry." Constitutional Rights Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. Greenhouse, Steven. "US: Meat Packing Industry Criticized on Human Rights Grounds." New York Times. N.p., 25 Jan. 2005. Web. 19 Apr. 2014. H.C. White. Chicago - Meat Packing Industry: Dropping Hides and Splitting Chucks, Beef Dept., Swift & Co.'s Packing House. Digital image. Library of Congress. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2014. Kallen, Stuart A. Food Safety. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2005. Print. "Meat Industry." Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Online, n.d. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. "Meatpacking in America: Still a Jungle Out There? . NOW |." PBS. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2014.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

cuban missle crisis :: essays research papers

The Cuban Missile Crisis demonstrates Advocacy versus Inquiry approaches as discussed in â€Å"What You Don’t Know About Making Decisions† by David A. Garvin and Michael A. Roberto. It also displays the Double Approach-Avoidance decisions that we studied in â€Å"Conflict† by Dennis Coon. Finally, the steps taken by John F. Kennedy display the steps described by Dennis Coon in his writing â€Å"Coping with Conflict†.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Once President Kennedy learned of the missiles in Cuba he formed a committee, EXCOMM, to discuss the appropriate course of action to deal with the weapons. During the meetings three options were presented: The first was to take a political course of actions to begin talks with Cuba. This was quickly dismissed because no members of the committee believed that these talks would be successful. The second option was continued surveillance combined with a blockade. Finally, the third option was military action.(Wiersma and Larson 6) This is an example of Double Approach-Avoidance because both option number two and option number three had positive and negative qualities. Option number two allowed the United States to apply pressure on Cuba without declaring war; however this approach could take a long time to eliminate the threat of weapons and could supply Cuba with time to hide their weapons. Option number three would quickly destroy Cuba’s weapons which was desirable, But Kennedy did not want to declare war because it most likely would upset Alliances and would be costly in American lives. During the discussions of the committee they wavered back and forth between option two and three. Indecisiveness is a common occurrence when a double approach-avoidance decision has to be made.(Coon 202) The Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Air Force were adamant that the US proceed with military action and tried to persuade the group to their way of thinking. The Joint Chiefs of Staff would be an example of the Advocacy Approach. John F. Kennedy asked a lot of questions about the possible outcomes of each option. He wanted to know how the US would be perceived, what the costs were, and how quickly we would see results from each of the options. John F. Kennedy would be an example of the Inquiry Approach. On Day four of the EXCOMM talks a majority decision was reached. There were still dissenters and they remained that way. John F. Kennedy liked the idea of the blockade because it provided Cuba with a way out of the crisis.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

What Makes the Dream American?

| What Makes the Dream American? | A Critical Thought Analysis| | Fairen Harris| University of Louisville| Dr. Chapman Gran Torino: In a nutshell A racist Korean War veteran and recent widower, Walt Kowalski is living in a crime ridden town in Detroit, Michigan. Walt’s once all White neighborhood has become occupied by the Hmong people. The Hmong people represent a part of Southeast Asia, such as Thailand, Laos, and China. The Hmong came to America because during the war they fought on the American side and the Vietnamese waged a war against the Hmong people after the Americans left.Due to this change in neighbors, Walt is now forced to confront his own lingering prejudice when a troubled Hmong teen, Thao Vang Lor, from next door attempts to steal his prized 1972 Gran Torino, (Ford model car) Walt himself helped assemble on the care line. It is decades after the Korean War has ended, and aging veteran Walt Kowalski is still haunted by the horrors he witnessed on the battlefiel d. The viewers notice the power distance created among the gang affiliated persons and the nonaffiliated when the gang has tried to kidnap Thao, Walt’s neighbor, from his home.Walt, in an attempt to get the â€Å"gooks† off his lawn turns his same rifle; he pointed at Thao when he attempted to steal Walt’s Gran Torino, on the gang members and scares them away. The Hmong show their gratitude to Walt, by making Thao pay penance for attempting to steal the Gran Torino. Despite the fact that Kowalski wants nothing to do with the young troublemaker, he realizes that the quickest way out of the situation is to simply cooperate. In an effort to set the teen on the right path in life and â€Å"toughen him up,† Walt turns from being Thao’s grumpy racist neighbor into being a helpful almost father figure.In the process of all of this, Kowalski discovers that the only way to lay his many painful memories to rest is to finally face his own blinding ethnocentri c views about other cultures directly. Thao Vang Lor: A boy or a man? When examining at the undertones of classism, racism, and sexism, one takes note that the character affected most is Thao. The first introduction viewers have of. Thao and the other Hmong people as a collective are celebrating the life of a new baby.The Lor family shaman is presiding over the ceremony giving viewers a glimpse into their traditional cultural values. Thao, living in a home with his grandmother, widowed mother, and sister, is looked down upon by the other Hmong people. They expect Thao to step up and become â€Å"the man of the home,† because of the recent death of his father. An elder woman in the movie even says, â€Å"Look at the way he does dishes he will never become the man of the home. † (cite movie here) When Thao fails to do so, he is ridiculed by elders and outcast by his peers.During the beginning of the movie Thao’s activity consist of what the Hmong, and many people of cultures around the world would refer to as ‘woman’s work. † Sue Lor, Thao sister, explains to Walt how life is for Hmong boys and girls. Sue Lor tells Walt, â€Å"Hmong girls fit in better. Girls go to college and the boys go to jail. † As the films plays out you see that Thao does not in fact fit this schema that the Hmong youth have seem to fall victim to. Despite Thao’s fight not to assimilate into the life of the typical Hmong boy, he finds it difficult to escape his cousin and gang friends.Thao is an average middle class teen, does the work of the household for his family, and is employed at a construction site; but most of all Thao wants to go to college and is willing to work hard to finance his way through school. However, he is still not seenperceived as being good enough as a man in the Asian culture and, even more so, in the American patriarchal society. So who is the better man, working Thao or his gang banging, potential rapist, cous in Spider? Throughout the entirety of the movie, Thao is faced with the notions that he is simply not enough of a man and he receives distinct criticism from his immediate family.Thao’s father, before his death, was always hard on them because, â€Å"he was traditional,† as Sue Lor put it. (cite here) How do we measure manhood? Is it based off the number of people that a man has killed? Is it the number of times he has went to war? Or in fact is the measurement of a man the same as what a human should be willing to do? To help ones family, set goals, and work hard to achieve them, that in fact is the measurement of a man, and that is who Thao Lor embodies. Diversity of the American dreamThe seemingly over arching theme in this movie is based on a culture clash, of non- Western and Western views and the ideas of the American Dream. This leads the audience to question, What does being an American mean? What is the American dream? The idea of the American dream is the not ion that anyone in the United States can succeed through hard work and has the potential to lead a happy, successful life. The issue with this idea is that the American dream often disregards  bias  based on a person's race, religion, gender and national origin, which might inhibit his or her ability to achieve the specific goals.Thao, not only struggling with sexism and racism, is also faced with the ever present struggle of class. Their whole neighborhood is similar to that of a very middle class neighborhood; however it is one that is not a priority of the city. Then is evident when there is a scene in which Walt has Thao clean was a rundown house across the street from Walt’s home, and when the police refuse to stay in the neighborhood long enough to patrol it properly. Thao’s only desire is attempting to lead a normalized life, wanting badly to make money, and wanting to take a Hmong girl that he has been interested in on a date.In his quest to do so he is fac ed with issues of peer pressure and teen anxiety. In search for his version of the American Dream, and in the end of the film he has finally achieved that, as Thao is seen driving the Gran Torino he once tried to steal. Conclusion: A message from the director In the end, Walt Kowalski gives up his life for Thao and the other Hmong people by sacrificing himself to be shot by the gang bangers in order to have hard evidence against them for them to be incarcerated for good.Walt was able to, not completely stop his racist mind set, become a bit more open to the Lor family, he felt he had the responsibility to protect them. After being killed, the film cuts to a scene of Thao and Sue in traditional Hmong clothing in route to Walt’s funeral, the same kind of scene as the beginning of the film. By directing and starring as the main character in the film, Clint Eastwood is making it a point for the viewers of this film to look closely at the issues occurring during this film, all of which having to do ith classism, racism, religion, sexism, and how each of these transpire across race and ethnic groups. Eastwood chooses to address Polish, Asians, Latinos, Blacks, Italians, men, women, young and old, wealthy, middle class, and the poor, attempting to address every traditional and non-traditional, western and non-western dichotomies. The film inevitably leaves the viewer thinking, did he do a good job in trying to get his message across? Was Eastwood attempts to use the film as antidote to the issues that it addresses fulfilled? r was there even a political perspective in which he wanted the viewers to interpret the film? References Eastwood, C. (Director, Prouducer). ( 2008). Gran Torino. [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Home Video Shiraev, E. , ; Levy, D. (2013). Cross-Cultural Psychology: Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications (5th ed. ). Boston: Pearson (Allyn ; Bacon). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed. ). (2 009). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Leading Group Challenges

The police officers arrest the offenders and charge the offender with the crime, and the court yester determines what sentence the offender should face, If the charges warrant a sentence. If the offender receives a sentence of Call or prison, the correctional faculties must guarantee the sentence occurs In a secure manner. Unfortunately, these criminal Justice agencies are not always working toward the same goals, which results in conflict. The leaders of the agencies must take care of the conflict before the conflict is out of hand.An example of the type of conflict that may arise is police officers wanting to remove the offenders off the streets. The court system may want o give the offenders a chance at rehabilitation instead of prison time, even if the offender is a repeat offender. Situations like this cause conflict for the leaders of the criminal Justice agencies to handle. The court system, correctional facilities, and police give up a considerable amount of control with the responsibilities. Leadership among criminal Justice agencies must consider the control with Justice (Collaborative Justice, 2012).Criminal Justice agencies must work together Instead of against each other to handle the challenges with conflict and control. The agencies must be on the name page and working toward the same goals. The ultimate goal Is to rehabilitate offenders but at times there will be an offender who is not a candidate for rehabilitation. The agencies must work together to find the best solution for the offender, society, and for the different agencies involved (Collaborative Justice, 2012).Political Challenges Criminal Justice agencies handle political and legal challenges that take place inside as well as outside the criminal justice system. Criminal justice decision makers are chosen through appointment or election. Depending on the state, the Judges are either voted in by the people or the governor appoints who he or she wants as a judge. No matter how a person l ooks at it, either way Is political. The president of the united States appoints the federal Judges, and he or she Is verified by the Senate. The political process strongly persuades the Supreme Court of the united States (Dulled, 2012).Keeping politics out of the various criminal Justice agencies Is a must. These agencies have a job to do, which cannot happen if the politics are in the way of people, with that, the politics must stop. The United States has too many corrupt officials because he or she allowed politics to get in the way of doing the Job. There are politics in the police, prosecution, and corrections. For good things to happen with these agencies in the future, these agencies need to separate the politics from the Job and purpose of the Job (Dueling, 2012).The Police and Politics Politics does not have a direct effect on the daily routines and decisions of police officers but politics does determine how the police officers act and react during patrol. Police departmen ts are run by some form of government, whether it is the city council, the mayor, the city manager, or the commissioner. These leaders make a change in the degree to which politics shape the police departments. Politics floods police departments in cities and towns that have a government that consists of a city council or a mayor making the decisions.Professional city managers make political involvement with the police departments less possible (Dueling, 2012). The Prosecution and Politics Political deliberations sway prosecutors in an exact way. Most states elect the prosecutors, and the prosecutors are caught up in the local politics. In the federal courts, the attorneys for the United States are appointed politically and are likely to outwork his or her career goals to the wants of his or her own political affiliation. The federal and state prosecutors frequently use his or her headquarters as a launch pad for a higher political office.Infrequently, a dishonest prosecutor will ta ke advantage of his or her power by way of engaging in political actions of pressing outrageous charges against his or her enemies (Law. ]rank. Org, 2012). Corrections and Politics Officials in the corrections facilities take political concerns into consideration. Politics can push release decisions from the parole board. The members of the parole board re vulnerable to pressure from the authority that chooses him or her. The members of the parole board almost unavoidably make the decisions to release an offender carefully.If a parolee commits a crime after he or she was paroled, the media will put the blame on the governor, and the rivals of the governor will use that against the governor in the next election (Dueling, 2012). Communication Challenges Communication is one of the biggest challenges facing leaders in criminal Just agencies. There are two communication barriers that affect communication within these agencies. The first barrier is the individual barriers. The individual barriers deal with how a person interprets what someone else says and the organizational barriers come from the culture of an organization.Each criminal Justice agency has one goal in mind, to protect the people. However, each agency has its own language of sorts when handling the tasks within the agency. The police departments, the court system, and corrections have different languages and not all agencies are familiar with each language. This is a challenge when the agencies must work together. This communication challenge also can be a problem for the public if the public does not know or understand what the agencies are discussing (Sinclair, 2012).Communication is vital to any agency, especially criminal Justice agencies. Every criminal Justice agency has a purpose to protect the people of the United States. Various agencies should hold a training session together to discuss the communication issues between the various agencies and train each agency on the different languages o f each agency. These agencies need to work together, which cannot happen if there is a lack in communication (Sinclair, 2012). Budget Challenges Budget cuts occur across the nation and criminal Justice agencies are not exempt room budget cuts.Most criminal Justice agencies rely on local and state funding to operate and sometimes the state or local officials have to make drastic cuts to the budget because of the economy. Unfortunately, this causes a reduction in staff because the money Just is not there to pay the salaries. Budget cuts are probably the biggest challenges that criminal Justice leaders face because no one wants a reduction in police officers or correctional officers. The United States needs every man power it can get to combat the war on crime.The crime rate rises when departments are forced to scale back because of the budget. Offenders on parole or probation receive less supervision because the money is not there to supervise adequately each offender. Budget cuts aff ect each agency differently, but no agency wants the budget to be cut because managers believe the public cannot be adequately protected (Bryant, 2012). Unfortunately, budget cuts happen to the criminal Justice agencies whether the agencies want it or not.Along with these budget cuts come a reduction in staff. That is a huge blow to law enforcement agencies hired to serve and protect the people of the United States. Criminal Justice agencies discuss and are given a budget after each fiscal year. The budget covers salaries, overtime, and various expenses for the department. The different departments must figure out ways to deal with budget cuts properly to ensure no reduction to the current staff. Sticking to the budget and using the budget for things necessary is important.Having an agency leader make drastic changes to the agency just because he or she wants to, is not a good way to spend the budget (Bryant, 2012). Effective Team Challenges Most criminal Justice agencies work toget her as teams inside the different agencies. Teams are assembled to brainstorm and complete the tasks. For example, law enforcement agencies have specific teams to work certain cases. These team members must be able to work with each other so the team can be effective to solve the cases. Criminal Justice managers do not always have team members who can work together.Sometimes there is conflict within the team and the manager has to come up with a resolution if he or she wants this team to succeed. The team members must be compatible with each other to be effective. The responsibility lies on the criminal Justice managers to assemble the effective and compatible teams for the departments. He or she is faced with a challenge when conflict arises within that am, and he or she must figure out a solution, whether the solution is to remove one member of that team or design new teams (Collaborative Justice, 2012).Affecting Change for the Future The leaders in criminal Justice agencies face many challenges that he or she must deal with daily. The criminal Justice agencies must work together as a team instead of against each other to make the changes and embrace the changes. The future criminal Justice leaders will be confronted with bigger and more complicated before. Even though the challenges will be more complicated and acknowledged at a ore rapidly rate, the abilities these leaders must conquer will not change. Leading Group Challenges The police officers arrest the offenders and charge the offender with the crime, and the court yester determines what sentence the offender should face, If the charges warrant a sentence. If the offender receives a sentence of Call or prison, the correctional faculties must guarantee the sentence occurs In a secure manner. Unfortunately, these criminal Justice agencies are not always working toward the same goals, which results in conflict. The leaders of the agencies must take care of the conflict before the conflict is out of hand.An example of the type of conflict that may arise is police officers wanting to remove the offenders off the streets. The court system may want o give the offenders a chance at rehabilitation instead of prison time, even if the offender is a repeat offender. Situations like this cause conflict for the leaders of the criminal Justice agencies to handle. The court system, correctional facilities, and police give up a considerable amount of control with the responsibilities. Leadership among criminal Justice agencies must consider the control with Justice (Collaborative Justice, 2012).Criminal Justice agencies must work together Instead of against each other to handle the challenges with conflict and control. The agencies must be on the name page and working toward the same goals. The ultimate goal Is to rehabilitate offenders but at times there will be an offender who is not a candidate for rehabilitation. The agencies must work together to find the best solution for the offender, society, and for the different agencies involved (Collaborative Justice, 2012).Political Challenges Criminal Justice agencies handle political and legal challenges that take place inside as well as outside the criminal justice system. Criminal justice decision makers are chosen through appointment or election. Depending on the state, the Judges are either voted in by the people or the governor appoints who he or she wants as a judge. No matter how a person l ooks at it, either way Is political. The president of the united States appoints the federal Judges, and he or she Is verified by the Senate. The political process strongly persuades the Supreme Court of the united States (Dulled, 2012).Keeping politics out of the various criminal Justice agencies Is a must. These agencies have a job to do, which cannot happen if the politics are in the way of people, with that, the politics must stop. The United States has too many corrupt officials because he or she allowed politics to get in the way of doing the Job. There are politics in the police, prosecution, and corrections. For good things to happen with these agencies in the future, these agencies need to separate the politics from the Job and purpose of the Job (Dueling, 2012).The Police and Politics Politics does not have a direct effect on the daily routines and decisions of police officers but politics does determine how the police officers act and react during patrol. Police departmen ts are run by some form of government, whether it is the city council, the mayor, the city manager, or the commissioner. These leaders make a change in the degree to which politics shape the police departments. Politics floods police departments in cities and towns that have a government that consists of a city council or a mayor making the decisions.Professional city managers make political involvement with the police departments less possible (Dueling, 2012). The Prosecution and Politics Political deliberations sway prosecutors in an exact way. Most states elect the prosecutors, and the prosecutors are caught up in the local politics. In the federal courts, the attorneys for the United States are appointed politically and are likely to outwork his or her career goals to the wants of his or her own political affiliation. The federal and state prosecutors frequently use his or her headquarters as a launch pad for a higher political office.Infrequently, a dishonest prosecutor will ta ke advantage of his or her power by way of engaging in political actions of pressing outrageous charges against his or her enemies (Law. ]rank. Org, 2012). Corrections and Politics Officials in the corrections facilities take political concerns into consideration. Politics can push release decisions from the parole board. The members of the parole board re vulnerable to pressure from the authority that chooses him or her. The members of the parole board almost unavoidably make the decisions to release an offender carefully.If a parolee commits a crime after he or she was paroled, the media will put the blame on the governor, and the rivals of the governor will use that against the governor in the next election (Dueling, 2012). Communication Challenges Communication is one of the biggest challenges facing leaders in criminal Just agencies. There are two communication barriers that affect communication within these agencies. The first barrier is the individual barriers. The individual barriers deal with how a person interprets what someone else says and the organizational barriers come from the culture of an organization.Each criminal Justice agency has one goal in mind, to protect the people. However, each agency has its own language of sorts when handling the tasks within the agency. The police departments, the court system, and corrections have different languages and not all agencies are familiar with each language. This is a challenge when the agencies must work together. This communication challenge also can be a problem for the public if the public does not know or understand what the agencies are discussing (Sinclair, 2012).Communication is vital to any agency, especially criminal Justice agencies. Every criminal Justice agency has a purpose to protect the people of the United States. Various agencies should hold a training session together to discuss the communication issues between the various agencies and train each agency on the different languages o f each agency. These agencies need to work together, which cannot happen if there is a lack in communication (Sinclair, 2012). Budget Challenges Budget cuts occur across the nation and criminal Justice agencies are not exempt room budget cuts.Most criminal Justice agencies rely on local and state funding to operate and sometimes the state or local officials have to make drastic cuts to the budget because of the economy. Unfortunately, this causes a reduction in staff because the money Just is not there to pay the salaries. Budget cuts are probably the biggest challenges that criminal Justice leaders face because no one wants a reduction in police officers or correctional officers. The United States needs every man power it can get to combat the war on crime.The crime rate rises when departments are forced to scale back because of the budget. Offenders on parole or probation receive less supervision because the money is not there to supervise adequately each offender. Budget cuts aff ect each agency differently, but no agency wants the budget to be cut because managers believe the public cannot be adequately protected (Bryant, 2012). Unfortunately, budget cuts happen to the criminal Justice agencies whether the agencies want it or not.Along with these budget cuts come a reduction in staff. That is a huge blow to law enforcement agencies hired to serve and protect the people of the United States. Criminal Justice agencies discuss and are given a budget after each fiscal year. The budget covers salaries, overtime, and various expenses for the department. The different departments must figure out ways to deal with budget cuts properly to ensure no reduction to the current staff. Sticking to the budget and using the budget for things necessary is important.Having an agency leader make drastic changes to the agency just because he or she wants to, is not a good way to spend the budget (Bryant, 2012). Effective Team Challenges Most criminal Justice agencies work toget her as teams inside the different agencies. Teams are assembled to brainstorm and complete the tasks. For example, law enforcement agencies have specific teams to work certain cases. These team members must be able to work with each other so the team can be effective to solve the cases. Criminal Justice managers do not always have team members who can work together.Sometimes there is conflict within the team and the manager has to come up with a resolution if he or she wants this team to succeed. The team members must be compatible with each other to be effective. The responsibility lies on the criminal Justice managers to assemble the effective and compatible teams for the departments. He or she is faced with a challenge when conflict arises within that am, and he or she must figure out a solution, whether the solution is to remove one member of that team or design new teams (Collaborative Justice, 2012).Affecting Change for the Future The leaders in criminal Justice agencies face many challenges that he or she must deal with daily. The criminal Justice agencies must work together as a team instead of against each other to make the changes and embrace the changes. The future criminal Justice leaders will be confronted with bigger and more complicated before. Even though the challenges will be more complicated and acknowledged at a ore rapidly rate, the abilities these leaders must conquer will not change.