Monday, September 30, 2019
The amway is the one of the company in the world who is selling the products which are helpful to the people in home in commercical foe personal and many other factor. But in the india ther are so many person who are very poor and he has no house but some person who are rich and his income per month is 14000 they are using the amway products but the others are donot use the amway bproducts because they are satisfy with the other products because they all are using last some years ago so amway products are not very much using in the india if amway some change for his product place and price so ther is possible to increase in the profit.There are the 4 ps of the company these are as follows Price Place Product and Promotion These are the 4ps of the amway these are common for all the marketing maix for the company. In the amway company 4ps are give the advice for the nutrition food and many other products . Product:- In the amway there are the different types of the products these are a s follows. Nutrition and wellness. consulates. home care. personal care. commercial products.These are the all the amway products but in this ther are the various types just like that Nutrition and wellness * Food supplementary * food * miscellaneous health and fitness Cosmetics * attitude * skin care products Home care * laundry care * apparel care * household cleaners * glass and mettle cares * moreÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Personal care * hair care products * oral care products * body and skin care products * family care products * moreÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Commercial products * agriculture products the amway company is
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Throughout history and across culture, definitions of masculinity and femininity have varied dramatically, leading researchers to argue that gender, and specifically gender roles, are socially constructed (see Cheng, 1999). Cheng (1999:296) further states that Ã¢â¬Å"one should not assume that Ã¢â¬ËmasculineÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour is performed only by men, and by all men, while Ã¢â¬ËfeminineÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour is performed by women and by all womenÃ¢â¬ . Such historical and cultural variations oppose the essentialist view that masculinity, femininity and gender roles are biologically ingrained in males and females prior to birth (Cheng, 1999). These socially constructed stereotypes surrounding masculinity and femininity coupled with their cultural and historical variations are the focus of this essay, leading into the sociological implications of the findings. Whilst practices of gender roles have varied dramatically across history and culture, the stereotypes surrounding masculinity and femininity have remained fairly stoic (Cheng,1999). Masculinity has been continually characterised by traits such as Ã¢â¬Å"independence, confidence and assertivenessÃ¢â¬ , with these traits relating directly to aspects of dominance, authority, power and success (Leaper, 1995:1). Cheng (1999:298) links these traits of masculinity to hegemonic masculinity, as Ã¢â¬Å"a culturally idealised form of masculine character.Ã¢â¬ Connell (1995:76) agrees, stipulating that hegemonic masculinity is culturally and historically variable, being simply Ã¢â¬Å"the masculinity that occupies the hegemonic position in a given pattern of gender relations.Ã¢â¬ This serves to emphasise that, if hegemonic masculinity is at the top of the pyramid of a set of gender relations, and these gender relations (as seen below) can vary, hegemonic masculinity itself can also vary ac ross cultures and historical periods. This indicates that the previously alluded to traits of masculinity are instead the Western traits of hegemonic masculinity (Connell, 1995). Femininity, on the other hand, has often been categorised as the complete opposite of hegemonic masculinity (Leaper, 1995). Leaper (1995:1) has emphasised many stereotypically feminine characteristics, including Ã¢â¬Å"understanding, compassion[ate] and affection[ate].Ã¢â¬ These characteristics often perpetuate the gender role of the loving, nurturing mother and domestic home-maker, emphasising success (as opposed to the masculine success of wealth and status accumulation) as aÃ tidy house and well-fed children (Hoffman, 2001). Various scholarly research has highlighted how such stereotypes of masculinity and femininity are continually perpetuated by the wider population, with Leaper (1995) reporting there is much distaste for a masculine woman or feminine man. However, regardless of the stereotypes associated with masculinity and femininit y, cultural variations of these stereotypical gender roles exist. It has long been argued that definitions and practices of masculinity and femininity vary across cultures (see Cheng, 1999), with evidence surrounding variations in masculinity being drawn from Japan, the Sambia region of Papua New Guinea, America and Latin America. Sugihara and Katsurada (1999:635) reiterate this perspective by stating that Ã¢â¬Å"[c]ulture defines gender roles [and] societal valuesÃ¢â¬ . Sugihara and KatsuradaÃ¢â¬â¢s (1999:645) study of gender roles in Japanese society characterised Japanese hegemonic masculinity as Ã¢â¬Å"a man with internal strengthÃ¢â¬ as opposed to the physical strength typically emphasised within Western societiesÃ¢â¬â¢ ideal man. In contrast, the American notion of hegemonic masculinity is predominantly seen as to include heterosexism, gender difference and dominance (Kiesling, 2005). Specifically, as stated by Kiesling (2005), masculinity in America relies upon being heterosexual, in a position of power, dominance or authority and believing that there is a categorical difference between men and women in terms of biology and behaviour. It is this Western notion of masculinity that is often seen to perpetuate stereotypical gender roles, as alluded to previously (Leaper, 1995). Further variations in masculinity across cultures can be seen in recent research in the Sambia region of Papua New Guinea, where it was discovered that masculinity Ã¢â¬Å"is the outcome of a regime of ritualised homosexuality leading into manhoodÃ¢â¬ (Macionis and Plummer, 2005:307) Such engaging in homosexual acts, whilst considered an example of hegemonic masculinity in the Sambia region, is considered a subordinated masculinity in the Western world, indicating how hegemonic masculinity can vary across cultures (Connell, 1995). Another cultural variation at the opposite end of the spectrum to the homosexuality of the Sambia region, the internalised strengths of Japanese men and even in contrast to the authoritative dominance of American masculinity, is the Ã¢â¬ËmachismoÃ¢â¬â¢ construct of masculinity in Latino men. The masculinity shown inÃ Latino men can be described as an exaggerated form of American hegemonic masculinity, with a focus on physical strength, toughness and acting as both a protector and an authority figure (Saez et. al, 2009). These four variations alone Ã¢â¬â between Japanese, Sambian, American and Latin American masculinity Ã¢â¬â emphasise the cultural differences in masculinity. Femininity, however, shows to some extent, even greater variation cross-culturally. Delph-Janiurck (2000:320) suggests that femininity focuses on Ã¢â¬Å"social relationsÃ¢â¬ ¦ the homeÃ¢â¬ ¦ [and] (re)creating feelings of togethernessÃ¢â¬ , re-emphasising the traditional stereotypical gender role of the nurturing, motherly home-maker. This definition of femininity can be reiterated by Sugihara and KatsuradaÃ¢â¬â¢s (1999:636) study, where they found Japanese women portrayed aspects of ConnellÃ¢â¬â¢s (1995) emphasised femininity, in that they were Ã¢â¬Å"reserved, subservient and obey[ed] their husbands.Ã¢â¬ However, these traditional traits of femininity are not the same across cultures. Margaret MeadÃ¢â¬â¢s study of the Mungdugumor and Tchambuli tribes of Papua New Guinea stand in stark contrast to the femininity previously emphasised. The Mungdugumor tribe showed both males and females as aggressive and powerful, typically masculine traits to the Western world (Lutkehaus, 1993). The Tchambuli tribe, in contrast, reversed the Western gender roles completely, resulting in the males being more submissive and females acting more aggressive (Gewertz, 1984). In the Western world and specifically Australia, variations in comparison to other cultures could not be more obvious. Harrison (1997) emphasises how the English tradition of debutante balls, adapted by many religious institutions in Australia, promotes a feminine ideal of monogamous heterosexuality, coupled with passivity, beauty, modesty and virginity. This version of femininity stands in stark contrast to the subservience of Japanese women, and the aggressive traits of both the Tchambuli and Mungdugumor tribesÃ¢â¬â¢ women, as a cross-cultural example of varied femininity. These examples further serve to emphasise how variable masculinity and femininity are across cultures. However, such variations are similarly evident across historical periods. Historical variations in masculinity and femininity also exist, further serving to emphasise that gender roles are a socially constructedÃ creation. Cheng (1999:298) reiterates this stating that, Ã¢â¬Å"[a]s history changes, so does the definition of hegemonic masculinityÃ¢â¬ , emphasising how variable social constructions of gender roles are. In the last century alone, the American version of hegemonic masculinity has witnessed significant changes. Before the first World War, hegemonic masculinity was portrayed through the likes of Humphrey Bogart and Clark Gable, before being overturned by the Ã¢â¬Å"more physical, muscular, violent and sexualÃ¢â¬ Arnold Schwarzenegger and Sylvester Stallone (Cheng, 1999:300). Another example exists in Australia, where masculinity has seen a similar shift from the 1950s until now. Pennell (2001:7) has emphasised how masculinity in Australia started with the patriarchy, the belief that Ã¢â¬Å"moral and legal authority derives from the masculine.Ã¢â¬ The 1950s particularly portrayed masculine males as the breadwinners and feminine females as homemakers, examples of the gender role stereotypes continually perpetuated today (Pennell, 2001). As the years progressed, sports stars such as Donald Bradman and, more recently, Shane Warne and Olympian James Mangussen, began to portray typical hegemonic masculinity, with more emphasis being placed upon physique, dominance and power, than simply material wealth (Pennell, 2001). However, masculinity is not the only thing that has seen significant historical change. Femininity, however, has not changed as dramatically as masculinity, remaining, as emphasised by Cheng (1999), the subordinated gender. Matthews (in Baldock, 1985) emphasises the changes that have occurred in femininity over the twentieth century, from women portraying their femininity through submissive acts of unpaid work to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s emancipation and allowance in joining the workforce, emphasising a less submissive, more powerful and independent notion of femininity. Whilst the feminist movement showed significant improvements to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights, historical notions of femininity Ã¢â¬â passivity, domesticity and beauty Ã¢â¬â continue to be perpetuated in Australian society (Cheng, 1999). This emphasises how society may not change as fast as evidence surrounding the social construction of gender roles arises (Cheng, 1999). Various sociological implications arise from these examples ofÃ varying masculinities and femininities across culture and history, particularly that it suggests gender roles are Ã¢â¬Å"not homogenous, unchanging, fixed or undifferentiatedÃ¢â¬ (Cheng, 1999:301). To some extent, such evidence can dispute claims that gender roles, masculinities and femininities are biologically determined and can argue against the essentialist argument that there are two and Ã¢â¬Å"only two bi-polar gender rolesÃ¢â¬ (Cheng, 1999:296). The evidence, that masculinity and femininity vary cross-culturally and over historical periods has the ability to argue against the essentialist argument, as it shows the more than two gender roles exist, with variations between cultures (such as the varied femininities across Japan and PNG) and within historical periods (such as the variations in American hegemonic masculinity). In a societal sense, evidence suggesting that gender roles are not biologically constructed, but instead vary throughout culture and history, emphasises that such perceived inevitable functions of society, such as the patriarchal dividend and gender inequality are not inevitable biological constructs (Hoffman, 2001). They could be argued, instead, as socially constructed blockades to female empowerment and equality, that, such as can be seen in the Tchambuli tribe of MeadÃ¢â¬â¢s study, can be reversed (Lutkehaus, 1993). The evidence that masculinities and femininities vary diversely across culture and historical period further empahsises that gender roles and gender divides are socially constructed. With evidence drawn from as far reaching as PNG and Japan and over vast historical periods, it can be reiterated that gender roles and perceptions of masculinity and femininity are not unchanging (Cheng, 1999). As emphasised throughout this essay, such evidence disputes essentialist arguments regarding the supposed inevitable patriarchal dividend and, in relation to society, reiterates that gender roles can change.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Learning Outcomes At the end of this chapter the students should be able to: ?Explain the meaning and purpose of accounting ?Describe the role of accounting as a information system ? Describe why accounting is considered as the language of business ? Assess the impact of external environmental factors on accounting Introduction Accounting has evolved and emerged as most other fields of human activity in response to the social and economic needs of society. Today accounting is moving away from its traditional procedural base, encompassing record keeping and related activities towards the adoption of a role which emphasizes its social importance. In this context, this introductory chapter of the course manual deals with the definition of accounting, use of accounting as an information system and the language of business, users of accounting information and the impact of external environment on accounting. Definition of Accounting The question what is meant by accounting has not been answered precisely. Instead there are many definitions on accounting. Some of these definitions are considered in this section to identify the purpose and functions of accounting. The Committee on Terminology of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) formulated the following definition on accounting in 1941. Accounting is the art of recording, classifying and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events which are, in part at least, of a financial character, and interpreting the results thereof. This definition of AICPA, USA has been quoted for many years. However, it defines accounting only from the point of view of what it does. Hence, it does not clearly establish the purpose of accounting. On the other hand, the following definition provided by the American Accounting Association (AAA) in 1961 emphasizes the broader perspective of accounting. This definition focuses on accounting as an aid to decision-making. Accounting is the process of identifying, measuring and communicating economic information to permit informed judgements and decisions by users of the information. In 1970, AICPA of USA provided the following definition on accounting with reference to the concept of information. The term Ã¢â¬Ëquantitative informationÃ¢â¬â¢ used in this definition is wider in scope than financial or economic information used in previous definitions. Accounting is a service activity. Its function is to provide quantitative information primarily financial in nature about economic activities that is intended to be useful in making economic decisions. Both definitions of AAA and AICPA show that accounting is considered not merely with record keeping. Instead it involves with a whole range of activities. These two definitions emphasize on using accounting information for decision making purposes. Both internal parties of an organization (e. g. managers) and outside parties (e. g. owners, creditors, government) use accounting information in making decisions that affect the organization. Although these definitions have looked at accounting from different perspectives, they have been able to set the boundary of accounting. They have established the nature of accounting and the purpose for which it is used. Hence, based on these definitions, it can be said that accounting is primarily concerned with the provision of information to various stakeholders of an organization to be used in decision making. Accounting as an Information System AAA definition on accounting implies two phases: (1) identifying and measuring economic information and (2) communicating economic information to users (stakeholders of an organisation) for decision making purposes. These two phases show that accounting acts as an information system in an organisation. The accounting process involves recoding and processing of transactions and events of an entity that had occurred during a specific period of time, and communicating the information relevant to processed transactions and events to aid decision-making of various users of accounting information. As an information system, accounting links an information source or transmitter (preparer/s of information), a channel of communication (financial and other statements/reports) and a set of receivers (users of information/stakeholders of an organization). The Figure 1 shows how accounting functions as an information system in business and economic decisions. In the accounting system, transactions and events are the input and the statements of reports given to decision-makers are the output. Figure 1 Accounting as an Information System in Business and Economic Decisions Data Source: Lal, J. (2005), Corporate Financial Reporting: Theory and Practice, second edition, Taxmann Allied Services (Pvt) Ltd, New Delhi. Accounting as the Language of Business Accounting is often called the language of business because it is considered as the main mean of communicating information about a business. This reference to accounting as the language of business is observed by Ijiri (1975) as follows: As the language of business, accounting has many things in common with other languages. The various business activities of a firm are reported in accounting statements using accounting language, just as reported news events are reported in newspapers, in the English Language. To express an event in accounting or in English we must follow certain rules. Without following certain rules diligently, not only does one run the risk of being misunderstood but also risks a penalty for misinterpretation, lying or perjury. Comparability of statements is essential to the effective functioning of a language whether it is in English or in Accounting. At the same time, language has to be flexible to adapt to a changing environment. A language broadly has two components: symbols and rules. In accounting too, these two components are available. In accounting, numerals and words, and debits and credits are accepted symbols and they are unique to the accounting discipline. The rules in accounting refer to the general set of procedures followed in creating financial information for an entity. Anthony and Reece (1991) draw a parallel between accounting and language as follows. Accounting resembles a language in that some of its rules are definite whereas others are not. Accountants differ as to how a given event should be reported, just as grammarians differ as to many matters of sentence structure, punctuation and choice of words. Nevertheless, just as many practices are clearly poor English (language), many practices are definitely poor accounting. Languages evolve and change in response to the changing needs of society, and so does accounting. Users of Accounting Information There is an array of users (or stakeholders) who make use of accounting information for decision making. These user groups include present and otential investors, managers, employees, lenders, suppliers, customers, analysts, media, government, and the general public. However, with the broadening of the accountability of organizations, they are accountable to a large group of stakeholders, some of them not clearly known or identified by the organizations. These users can be broadly categorized as internal and external users of accounting information. The term Ã¢â¬Ëinternal u sersÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to parties within an organization that make decisions directly affecting its internal operations and this category usually includes managers and employees of an entity. All other users can be grouped under the term Ã¢â¬Ëexternal usersÃ¢â¬â¢, which refer to parties outside the organization that make decisions concerning their relationship to the organization. These two major classifications of users have led to a distinction between two main areas of accounting: financial accounting and management accounting. The primary concern of financial accounting is to provide information to external user groups. On the other hand, the management accounting is primarily concerned with the provision of information to internal user groups. These users have diverse information needs. However, among these diverse needs too, there are common information needs. The financial statements of an entity that provide information about its financial performance, financial position, and changes in financial position address these information needs common to all users. As these financial statements are prepared to meet the information needs of a cross-section of users, they are known as common-purpose (general-purpose) financial statements. However, these financial statements do not provide all the information that users need to make decisions since they largely portray the financial effects of past transactions and events. The responsibility to prepare and present financial statements lies with the management of an entity. As general-purpose financial statements meet the information needs of users who are unable to command the preparation of financial reports of an entity, the government has imposed regulations to govern these financial statements. These regulations are intended to protect the public interest. External Environmental Factors influencing Accounting The pace and change in external environmental factors have a profound influence on business organizations and the way in which they are managed. These factors could be social, economic, political, legal or technological. Accounting, as the language of business and its information system is also affected by these changes. The changing conditions in the external environment have confronted accounting with a number of challenges that should be recognized, accepted and addressed to ensure its relevance and usefulness. This has made accounting to change and grow over the years to meet social requirements and to guide business and industry requirements. Thus, understanding accounting requires understanding the environment within which accounting operates and which it is intended to reflect. The society has been subjected to political, social, economic and technological change. These changes have resulted in globalization, the rise of informed and selective customers, the development of information technology and etc. These changes in the external environment factors are reflected in business organizations through the shift in business types and cost profiles, increase in strategic decision making and greater emphasis on survival. The changing conditions within business organizations lead accounting to change in order to meet the new requirements resulted from these changes. The areas requiring changes in accounting include selection of data, information processing, dissemination of information, role of accounting standards, assumptions and perspectives of accounting, and uses and impact of accounting information. Thus, todayÃ¢â¬â¢s rapidly changing environment is forcing accounting to reassess its role and function both within the organization and society. Although challenges imposed by different environmental factors on accounting could be discussed separately, they should be viewed from a holistic perspective. This is because the power of potential improvement lies in the cohesion of the changes rather than in individual items. The changing conditions in the business environment will shape the future for accounting. The environment within which business and accounting function operate has become increasing complex. One of its characteristic features is that many social, economic, political, legal and technological influences that create continual change in that environment and these in turn impact on accounting and its product, accounting information. However, it is sometimes criticized that accounting has not been able to keep pace with this changing conditions in the external environment. Summary This chapter provides an overview of accounting based on its nature and purpose, users of accounting information and impact of external environment on accounting. The primary objective of accounting is to provide information that can be used by the stakeholders of an organization (users of accounting information) in making their decisions. These decisions could have a bearing on the resource allocation process in the country and thereby on the economic growth and development of the country. However, the role and functions of accounting cannot be considered in isolation from the social-political-economic context within which it is operating. The rapidly changing external environment is posing many challenges to accounting and it needs to adapt to these changing conditions. This requires a continual process of renewal and improvement in accounting. References American Accounting Association (1966), A Statement of Basic Accounting Theory, AAA. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) (1941), Review and Resume, Accounting Terminology Bulletin, No. . American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) (1970), Basic Concepts and Accounting Principles underlying Financial Statements of Business Enterprises, Accounting Principles Board Statement No. 4, Anthony, R. N. and Reece, J. S. (1991), Accounting Principles, Richard D Irwin. Ijiri, Y. (1975), Theory of Accounting Measurement, Research Report, No. 10, AAA. Lal, J. (2005), Corporate Financial Report ing: Theory and Practice, second edition, Taxmann Allied Services (Pvt) Ltd, New Delhi.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Services Sector Marketing - Case Study Example Having a restaurant and running it is no big deal - people all across the world do that, but not many have succeeded the way that TGI Friday's has done. The business has done a remarkable job in developing its cutting edge over its competitors, doing what others haven't done, bringing up innovation and creativity, that attracts thousands of customers to its outlets all around the world, and has maintained itself and its status as the premier entertaining hang out place, with themed coverage, and instances that create a memorizing impact on the customer, pulling them to come over again and again. Customer attraction and retention is an important phenomenon when devising a marketing plan, and this is where TGI Friday's has been fairly successful in doing a remarkable job. The difference that it has created is what gives it a cutting edge. As mentioned in the company policy, amongst the critical components for the business is the ambience that it wants to create within its environment. And certainly, the business has been successful in the same. Critical incident is a derived form of critical incident technique, in which events and observations are gathered, and these observations formulate the critical incident. Critical incident techniques define process from the point of understanding and witnessing the 'incident' to the fact finding and collecting data from the participants and till the issue is resolved. TGI Friday's can identify what constitutes a critical incident by conducting research in its area or industry specific terms, and it would ultimately lead the business into identifying whether or not it has achieved customer satisfaction. For this purpose, on a general note, businesses hire consultants for rendering their services mainly to identify the variables. Researches reveal that the critical incident here, as also mentioned in the case, would be a busy time at the restaurant. Observing the various aspects related to a busy time and comparing the same to a non-busy time would yield meaningful outcome. Here, observation needs to be done by a neutral person who is neither very defending about the employees nor a very customer centric individual. The various aspects that need to be observed are mainly the delivery time, the professionalism of the servers, and manner of delivery, lag time and other several variables. These aspects should not just be observed but the participants i.e. the customers should also be asked questions about the same. A few observations during busy times, and a few during the non busy timings would definitely yield outcome that have comparative basis and thus can be compared to illustrate whether the business has achieved customer satisfaction or otherwise. Q3: Discuss the relative merits and demerits of 'blueprinting' and 'Servicescapes' as conceptual framework for analyzing the service encounter at TGI Friday's. Blueprinting is defined as a mechanism that portrays in a visual format the procedures and participants that are involved in producing a service, or in other words, it is a visual
Thursday, September 26, 2019
The reality of Global Warming in the Modern World - Research Paper Example Many techniques have been developed to study how for instance the sea levels have changed over the last few millions of years, even before mankind walked the world. Some of the techniques which have been developed include studying annular rings of old trees, coastal fossils, coral reefs and even fossils in the dry land. Most of these techniques have been used to reveal how climatic change has affected the earth and the life in it, even without the help of the human race. Evidence of coral reefs which have been found in what is now dry land indicates that the coastal lines I most places in the world were further inland. This is evidence that temperature changes can and will lead to changing coast lines and this is a very serious issues for the modern world where big cities have been build on coastlines. There is therefore a need to make sure that these issues are well understood by everyone and that everyone understands what hey need to do. Yet, in the modern world, human activities have increased the rate of climatic change in a very drastic way, making it possible for the climate change to be the fastest in the history of the earth. By studying coral reefs, and coastal reefs, it has been revealed that in the past, coastal levels have been changed a lot leading to the extinction of vitreous specials of both plants and live. In the past, climatic change has been in two ways such as towards receding the coastal line as well as advancing it.
Ethics Case Study - Essay Example JerryÃ¢â¬â¢s training within the medical field surrounds him to not be in a position from where he can prescribe anyone a medicine. This makes him disqualified to resolve an issue at hand, which in this case has happened when Dr. Williams was not present on his seat. There is a possibility that Dr. Williams has essentially forbidden dosage of Valium to a certain patient, and in this case if Jerry McCall prescribes usage of Valium just on the basis of being Dr. WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ friend, then this shall become an ethical issue all the same. Hence it would be fitting enough for Jerry McCall to keep himself at a distance from making that unethical move by prescribing medicine to this patient which basically transgresses his authority by quite a fair proportion. 2 Would it make a difference if the medication requested were for control of high blood pressure that the patient critically needs on a daily basis? Why or why not? One should believe that it would not be any different if the req uested medication controls high blood pressure. There would be no difference if the discussion centered on lowering it all the same. The reason for this is that the kind of medication required to be given by Jerry McCall or any other person in charge is uncalled for. He should seek the advice of Dr. Williams and since he is not present on his seat, it would be a wise decision to stay put and ask Dr. WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ friend to wait for a certain while. Dr. Williams alone would be the best person to suggest which medicine and how much dosage would be deemed as a fitting one for his friend under such a circumstance. The patient must know that Dr. Williams only can help him and no one else from his staff has the right or the authority to issue a refill order. 3 If Jerry calls in the refill and the patient has an adverse reaction while flying, is Jerry protected from a lawsuit under the doctrine of respondent superior? It is safe to suggest that Jerry McCall would not gain any protection from a lawsuit. This is because under the basis of the doctrine of respondent superior, if the patient feels that he has had an adverse reaction even though he is flying; there are serious legal issues which will come to the fore. There would be serious charges for Jerry McCall as he will be the one who brought about the medication realms towards the patient. Essentially speaking, it will also make Dr. Williams duty bound and thus he would also have to undergo the lawsuit as Jerry is his employee. Since the medication was never appreciated in the first place and was totally uncalled for, the role that Jerry plays under such a situation becomes even more significant. The reason for this is that he was never given the permission to provide for medication to patients as he does not qualify for any post within Dr. WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ office. One must not forget that he is an office assistant, and thus his job domains do not allow him to administer issuing a refill order for patients as an d when required by the patients. Hence, the lawsuit would come about on Jerry McCall as well as Dr. Williams for being negligent towards their duties and for being unethical within their working basis (Weber, 2000). 4 What is your advice to Jerry? If someone could give an advice to Jerry, it would be that he should perform his job alone and not think about doing something which can be regarded as an immoral act. He must not interfere within the working basis of his employer Ã¢â¬â Dr. Williams. If he does so, he will be able to maintain
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Business - Essay Example Scholars also mention that Emotional Intelligence (EI) has strong influence on the performance of employees (EP). The basis for such a statement is the assumption that emotional intelligence can enhance individual, team and organizational effectiveness. The aim of this paper is to critically examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and employee performance. In particular, this paper aims at defining why emotional intelligence is important for employee performance and how the two concepts are related. First of all this essay will attempt to provide a reader with a basic understanding of what emotional intelligence and employee performance are. Secondly, the paper will utilize existing scholarship research in order to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and employee performance. Thirdly, analysis and evaluation of the relation between emotional intelligence and employee performance will be conducted in order to determine whether emotional intelligenc e is important for employee performance or not. Finally, the presented work will provide conclusions outlining the relationship between emotional intelligence and employee performance, as well as limitations of the given research. ... It is an ability to recognize and understand own emotional responses of self and other people accurately (Cherniss and Adler 2000, 13). The statement of Allameh et al. (2011, 349) also supports this definition saying that emotional intelligence is not a simple quality of a personality; instead, it is a combination of capabilities, which includes comprehension, judgment and perceiving of emotions Ã¢â¬â own emotions and emotions of other people. Mcshane, Olekalns and Travaglione (2010, 130) have identified four dimensions of emotional intelligence. They are self awareness, self management, social awareness and relationship management. This classification goes in line with the findings of Boyatzis, Goleman and Rhee (1999, 3). These researches have determined that Ã¢â¬Å"emotional intelligence includes two dimensions, internal and external. The self awareness, self image, independence feeling, self realization capacity and decisiveness regard as internal elements. The external element s are inter-individual relationship, compassion and feeling of responsibility.Ã¢â¬ Finally, many scholars and researchers argue that emotional intelligence have positive influence on employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s job satisfaction, ability to deal with stress, and work attitudes (Mustafa and Amjad 2011, 241; Allameh et al. 2011, 348). 2.2 Employee Performance (EP) Wu (2011, 22) described employee performance as the amount of effort that employees input into their jobs. The definition of Schermerhorn, Hunt and Osborn (2005, 122) is quite similar Ã¢â¬â it states that employee performance includes two elements: quantity and quality of final results brought by employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s or teamÃ¢â¬â¢s effort achievement. Moreover, Befort and Hattrup (2003, 17) present another perspective at the
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Law (a legal case brief ) - Assignment Example The main point in issue before the appellate court was whether the trial court was justified in holding that the irregularities would not Ã¢â¬Å"give rise to any concern that the accusedsÃ¢â¬â¢ right to a fair trial might be prejudiced.Ã¢â¬ 2 Relevant provisions of the law3 are as follows Prior to the enactment of the Jury Act, analogous provisions were s. 621 and s. 622 of the Criminal Code4. Section 621 provided that the jury Ã¢â¬Å"must not separateÃ¢â¬ and that no person was Ã¢â¬Å"allowed to speak to or communicate with any of them without the leave of the court until they are dischargedÃ¢â¬ . In the matter of Webb & Hay5, Ã¢â¬Å"it was unanimously heldÃ¢â¬ by the High Court Ã¢â¬Å"that the test to be applied for determining whether an irregular incident involving a juror warranted the discharge of the juror or the jury was whether the incident was such that, notwithstanding any proposed or actual warning of the judge, it gave rise to a reasonable apprehension or suspicion on the part of a fair-minded and informed member of the public that the juror or jury had not discharged or would not discharge their task impartially.Ã¢â¬ 6 In the present case, the appellate court took exception to the opinion of the trial judge Ã¢â¬Å"Subsection (4) of Section 53 Ã¢â¬ ¦ requires the Court to focus not so much upon perceptions as upon the reality of prejudice, or likely prejudice, to a fair trial.Ã¢â¬ The appellate court cited the joint judgment in Jackson and Le Gros.7 The appellate Court gave five irregularities and quashed the convictions and ordered retrials. It was held that the jury should have been discharged even though there was no real danger of bias or of inability of the jury to arrive at a verdict uninfluenced by the irregularities. It was also held that the judge should have considered not only the likely prejudice on the part of the jury to be influenced, but by the perception amongst fair-minded and informed members of
Monday, September 23, 2019
Fair Trade Principles - Essay Example Scarce commodities are considered much more important than commodities available in abundance hence there is a significant difference between the prices of scarce commodities and the commodities which are available in abundance. Let us now consider the demand aspect of the price theory, the demand aspect of the price theory is driven by an important factor which is how desperately a consumer is in need of that commodity or service. If a consumer is urgently in need of the service or commodity, he/she wouldn't mind spending even double the amount of money which they would have spent in normal circumstances. So the demand aspect of the price theory is all about the desire of the consumer to have that particular commodity or service at his/her disposal. Another important aspect which is very important is the demand curve; demand curve gives a good enough indication of the will of consumers to buy the commodity or the service at that particular price. Demand curve and supply curves are studied by an organization to arrive at an equilibrium price. Equilibrium cost is the fixed cost and this changes only when the demand and supply is changed and it does not change unless the demand and supply changes. Let us now take into consideration the difference between luxury goods and necessities, the ... he level of income of an individual goes on to decide what luxury is and what is necessity For instance a rich person can stop buying bikes and as a replacement start collecting cars, this purely depends on the level of income of people. The word luxury has more meanings than one, one often mistakes luxury as a status symbol, for instance a person can buy a Nike shoe considering as a luxury knowing very little about how good the shoe is, so it depends on individuals on how they define luxury. Euro Star and its Price Theory Euro star is a high speed train which covers areas in London, Brussels and Paris. The price theory of the high speed train will be highlighted in the remaining of the paper. There are three different classes namely, the standard class, the Leisure select and the last one is Business Premier. The rates vary depending upon the class, for a journey from London to Paris it would roughly cost about 178 if one chooses to travel in Standard class, on the other hand the fare is higher if one chooses to travel by Leisure select, it would cost roughly about 325 if one chooses a two way journey from London to Paris and back. The third and the most expensive class is the Business Premier which would cost a person roughly about 328.50 for a one way journey from London to Paris. The demand factor of the price theory comes into effect here; people opt to travel by Euro star because they have the willingness to pay for the service offered by the train. This is a very essential concept in price theor y, if the people don't feel the willingness to travel by the train they will stop travelling by the train. This goes to show that the prices of the services offered by the train are quite reasonable and this is exactly why the people feel willing to travel
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Economy and Society of Historical Brazil Essay This essay investigates how the political distribution of land and the employment of coerced labor on sugar plantations and mining affected the development of economies and societies in colonial Brazil. Distribution of land in colonial Brail was politically-motivated and strikingly unequal. Landlords owned huge territories and exerted considerable influence upon both people residing in that territories and local governance institutions. People who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t own land were completely powerless against the tyranny of landlords. Furthermore, unequal distribution of land had negative economic consequences: landlords owned more land than they could manage, so great areas were used in a wasteful way (Wright Wolford, 2003). As concerns coerced labor, slavery also had a profound impact on Brazilian economy and society. Coerced labor was used in sugar-cane mills, gold mines, and sugar plantation. Slavery contributed significantly to the economic development of the country, especially of its North-Eastern parts. Coerced labor can be regarded as a major factor in turning Brazil into export-oriented agricultural economy. As for the influence on the society, resistance among slaves used to be a source of constant social tension. However, in cultural terms, certain elements of African culture eventually fitted well in the mainstream culture of the country, Capoeira being the most telling example. Also, slave trade become a source of quick accumulation of wealth by certain categories of population, like traders and slave market owners. Thus, the political distribution of land and use of coerced labor can be regarded as two major factor shaping the economy and social structure of colonial Brazil.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Television Is A Type Of Communication System Media Essay A unbridgabale gap has come in human and TV . There are so many channels to enjoy.It has presented or telecasted of every door to door customs and traditional as well as international events .Television helps us get updates what happened around the world.we are able to see all small movement happened around us.It presents a small view of our society.On this we can watch live events like cricket ,functional etc.It has great deals now -a -days with mass and media .It has been proved through TV that mass need every update at every movement of their life.It has been a grand source of mass communication.TV what we think it has been a most common source of information and entertainment for people and it has knocked out every source of information. Moreover ,television is a great source of getting jobs, as a carrier maker,personality,enhanchment and much more.TV is known as an idiot box by some people but it not an idiot box .If we use it through a knowledge of science, discovery ,arts ,history and some related channel. It depends on the person how he use it and to what extent he is using it.Without TV we can not imagine our life because it provides us information at every moment of life and every a single movement of our society.TV is a great source of mass media .Media is a great powerful source of public and it can fulfill peoples needs .Now-a-days so many TV Channels are providing their expeditions to all,The socities or groups of society members .They try to catch videos of people and broadcast to all over the world to approach their demands to the governing bodies.As a result we see everday on television govt.come to take some implements on some matters through these sort of news or spicy matters. Without TV we are unable to get updates about what happening around the world.Through television companies are advertising their product .It avoids kids from doing social things they dont spend much time playing outdoor games rather they just spend time seeing them on TV .well and the most important ,if u sit in front of TV the whole day youll definitely get fat .its a fact.Today the kids are mostly interested in watching cartoons which involve so much actions and violence .It imprints a bad impact on childrens.If we see our present we think on programs that made for childrens .programs or serials that designed for childrens more often contain violence than adult TV. we always heard the thoughts of our parents ,neighbourhood ,many people that children are always infront of television watching game,cartoon,TV serials ,cricket match ,geographical channel etc. Childrens ,students they properly do not focus toward their studies .they always dis-obeying their parents.the problem is that t hey only watch cartoons ,movie ,songs and so on.The dont watch TV news which more useful for them to increase their general knowledge. Childrens spend max. time infront of television.Television can be a very useful academics.The television programmes are used to develop listening skills,learning skills.Now Lets talk about merits and de-merits of television TV HELPFUL TO PEOPLE: TV provides : Knowledge of outside world Good programs of science ,medicine arts Entertainment to the old Language practice for non-native speakers. SERIOUS DISADVANTAGES OF TV: People watch TV for 6hrs.a day Children watch TV more than studying sleeping TVs can influence negative sense TV CAUSES POOR CONCENTARTION : Childrens studies suffer Makes people dissatisfied ; Life becomes boring Becomes more real than reality. VIOLENCE ON SCREEN AFFECTS CHILDREN: Children watch: Murders on TV Violence fights People get excited PEOPLE GET ADDICTED TO TV: Most negative effect of TV- People get addicted Powerful need to watch TV TVs addication is like drug addiction. .so many people have have fallen into the trap of believing tv is the best entertainment there is, but for a little extra you get loads more out of books.And it all comes down to imagination.somedays books are so so much better than tv,you can really get engrossed in them and theres such as lot to gain from them.Before a child is fourteen years old,he or she views eleven thousand murders on the tube.He or she beings to belive that there is nothing strange about fights ,killings and other kinds of violence .Many studies show that people more violent after certain programmes.They may even do things that they saw in a violent show.The most negative effect of the boob-tube might be people addication to it .People often feel a strange and powerful need to watch television even when thy dont enjoy it .Addication to a television screen is similar to drug or alcohol addiction.People almost never belive they are addicted
Friday, September 20, 2019
The stories of JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ crucifixion and resurrection in the gospels Mark and Peter differ greatly. Each author has his own plot, descriptive language, audience and characterization of Jesus. What we know about Jesus and how he is portrayed changes between the gospels. For example, the Gospel of Mark uses many Jewish references and makes parallels to the Old Testament which was most likely for the benefit of a Jewish audience. Also, the Jesus in MarkÃ¢â¬â¢s gospel is characterized to be more divine, befitting the expectations of the Jewish community. However, The Gospel of Peter seems to entertain both a pagan and Jewish audience, using language that either group could relate to. The Jesus of Peter is oddly portrayed and is more akin to what we would think as superhuman rather than divine. The most obvious differences between the crucifixion and resurrection stories in the Gospel of Mark and the Gospel of Peter lie in their plots. These differences, in effect, change our conceptions of Jesus. In the Gospel of Mark it begins with Jesus before Pilate but in the Gospel of Peter it begins with some kind of council between Pontius Pilate and Herod. In the Gospel of Mark we see Jesus on trial being accused of many things. Pilate asks Jesus Ã¢â¬Å"Are you king of the Jews?Ã¢â¬ and Jesus replies Ã¢â¬Å"You say so,Ã¢â¬ and we see a Jesus that is above slander and empty accusations. (Mark 15.2) By saying this, Jesus never admits anything. While he does go along with what they are doing to him; he makes no comment on whether their accusations or rumors about him are true. A position that lets us know Jesus is taking the high road. However, in the Gospel of Peter we do not have the luxury of starting with such a conception, in fact we do not even get to see Jesus u... ...ived. In Mark there are these Jewish undertones that make Jesus out to be a divine and respectable figure that was put through so much during his passion, crucifixion, and resurrection. In Peter, we have a strange view of Jesus. He can be perceived as a human that had extraordinary gifts, and supernatural events simply occurred around him. In Peter there was also even more crazy phenomena not seen in the canonical texts. An example of this phenomenon would be when a floating cross appeared and then proceeded to talk. Both texts present these very different views of Jesus while at the same time propose questions that cannot really be answered definitively. The only thing that is definite is that both Mark and Peter used their plots and languages to really influence how their audiences view Jesus. Jesus was emphasized as more divine in Mark and more human in Peter.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
This paper will explore the three elements of innate evil within William Golding's, Lord of the Flies, the change from civilization to savagery, the beast, and the battle on the island. Golding represents evil through his character's, their actions, and symbolism. The island becomes the biggest representation of evil because it's where the entire novel takes place. The change from civilization to savagery is another representation of how easily people can change from good to evil under unusual circumstances. Golding also explores the evil within all humans though the beast, because it's their only chance for survival and survival instinct takes over. In doing so, this paper will prove that Lord of the Flies exemplifies the innate evil that exists within all humans. Civilization is compromised when rules become unnecessary and the children?s state of mind has changed for the worst. In Lord of the Flies, the conch shell and signal fire represent civilization, but as the children lose interest in having a leader, and following rules, these objects lose their meaning and savagery takes over. ?We may stay here till we die,? (pg.9) was a very powerful quote, because from the beginning of the novel, Golding is foreshadowing their future on the island. Another example of this is their painted faces and tribal dances, which happen when they?ve killed a pig. A force greater than they can control seems to take over their humanity, and because children haven?t been exposed to think for themselves, they don?t know between right and wrong. Therefore, society hasn?t conditioned them to be evil, but the evil resides within them naturally. This leads to the fact that a beast really does exist within all human beings, but is only expressed when human instinct for survival becomes the main objective. At first the boys aren?t able to kill, but as survival instinct starts taking over, the reader?s are able to se the true character?s play out, and lives are compromised. ?You feel as if you?re not hunting, but- being hunted, as if something?s behind you all the time in the jungle,? (pg.53) proves that it?s every man for himself and people will do anything to survive. An example of this in the novel was when Robert became the ?pig,? and was wounded even though it wasn?t intentional, but the situation became worse when Piggy?s death happened as a result of all civilization lost and evil taken over.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Learning to Read and Write: Language on the Brain When I was little, my favorite book was Happy Birthday Moon. For a while, it was my nightly bedtime story. Anyone who offered to read aloud to me was immediately proffered this book. After some time, I knew the story by heart, word for word. I could not quite read the book but I had memorized the framework of it and so could tell the story myself. The day that I learned to finally recognize the words themselves was so exciting. When the blur of squiggly lines on the page became letters with sound and meaning, a whole new dimension opened up. Every form of human expression is codified within some framework of language. As an English major, I study how people manipulate and interpret language in order to communicate. As a tutor with a reading enrichment program, I sometimes encounter kids who do not share this love of reading and writing. As it is my job to help them master and gather more enjoyment from their dealings with language, and since brain equals behavior, I thought this web paper the perfect opportunity to ask few questions. How does the brain process language? Why do some people enjoy reading and writing better than others do? Why is it easier for some people to learn to manipulate language? And which came first the brain, or the linguistic framework that defines and identifies it? I have learned that language, like the nervous system, is a complicated blueprint which humans use to communicate with, navigate, and interpret, the world. For most people, the parts of the brain that process language are located in the left hemisphere (3). The primary sections in the brain that allow us to read, write, and speak communicably are: the left frontal cortex or Borca's Area, the posterior part of the temporal lobe or Wernicke's Area and a bundle of nerves called the arcuate fasciculus (3). The angular gyrus, at the back of the brain, interprets the words and letters that compose language (4). In order for a word or a sentence to be understood when it is read, an action potential must travel the network of these various parts. First, the information must get from the page to the primary visual cortex. From there is must go to the posterior angular gyrus, near Wernicke's area. Then, if the word or sentence is to be read aloud, it must travel to Borca's Area and the primary motor cortex (3).
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
In Robert FrancisÃ¢â¬â¢ poem Ã¢â¬Å"The Hound,Ã¢â¬ the writer creates a sense of fear by comparing how mysterious and unpredictable dogs are to life using an extended metaphor to show life as uncertain and one has to wait to see what it brings at them. In lines 1-5, the writer states: Ã¢â¬Å"Life the hound/Equivocal/Comes at a bound/Either to rend me/Or to befriend me.Ã¢â¬ The speaker compares the habits of a hound to life to show even though they are not alike, they are similar in the way of not knowing the next thing that can happen. They are both questionable and suspicious because no one knows what will happen next and there is a possibility of it tearing one apart. Additionally, it can be a friend to one and everything will go well. This enforces how uncertain life is towards human beings. Meanwhile, the speaker continues in lines 6-11 by saying: Ã¢â¬Å"I cannot tell/ The houndÃ¢â¬â¢s intent/ Till he has sprung/ At my bare hand/ With teeth or tongue.Ã¢â¬ There is a sense of tension that is created in these lines by the use of imagery in order to show how no one is sure of what will follow. There is a possibility that life wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be very friendly and will come at one Ã¢â¬Å"with teeth or tongue.Ã¢â¬ This can seem like a negative thing because it could come and bite you or that phrase could mean it is coming with happiness and joy thus promising good things to come. Finally, the speaker says in the last two lines Ã¢â¬Å"Meanwhile I stand/And wait the event.Ã¢â¬ This suggests the speaker is passive and waiting for something to happen. This is because one doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what will happen thus will not actively participate. In life, one might not always participate because life is uncertain and it can either be a friend or destroy the person.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Hinamatsuri Hinamatsuri ( ) is a girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ festival in Japan which is on 3 March. At this festival, parents will put a display stage for their daughters that dolls wearing Wafuku and small furniture from the top to the bottom. Although this festival is not an official holiday in Japan, all of the family members will be together to bless girls for growing up happily and healthily to be an adult. It is very fastidious about the location of the dolls in the display stage. Usually, the top is a pair of emperor-Obina ( and empress-Mebina ( ) with a miniature gilded screen placed behind them like am imperial court. The second stage is Sannin Kanjo ( ), Kuwae no Choushi ( ), Sanpou ( ), and Nagae no Choushi ( ). The third stage is a Gonin BayashiI ( ), Kozutsumi ( ), Fue (? ), Utaikata ( ), Ookawa ( ), and Taiko ( ). The fourth stage is two Zuishiin ( ), Udaijin ( ) and Sadaijin ( ), with some food between them. The fifth stage is three servants and Ukon no Tachibana ( and Sakon no Sasu ra ( ). The sixth stage is some little dowry furniture. The seventh stage is car, cage, and sedan chair, etc. There are totally 15 dolls and 7 stages. Adding up with some other decorations, it would be more expensive. However, there has other choice for 1 stage, 3 stages or 5 stages. These dolls can be generation. When daughter get married, mother would give her daughter these dolls as dowry. Usually, people will put this display 1 or 2 weeks before 3 March.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Employee benefits are one of the most important factors in the retention of registered nurses where the threat of turnover is very high. Often, RNÃ¢â¬â¢s leaves a hospital for another because it offers better compensation and attractive benefits. Kennedy Hospital has offers an attractive benefits package but many other hospitals may offer much more. To determine how Kennedy compares to its competition an analysis of the components in its benefits package is presented. The benefits package compared are those of Kennedy, Virtua, Lourdes and Genesis. In terms of health insurance, all hospitals offered multiple plans to choose from but it is Kennedy alone that includes prescription coverage, while Genesis and Kennedy has covers vision and all of them has dental insurance. For life insurance benefits, Kennedy, Virtua, Lourdes and Genesis all offers basic life, supplemental life and short term disability, however Kennedy does not have long term disability insurance while the other three hospitals have provisions for it. Kennedy and Lourdes however provides child and spouse life insurance. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s paid leave benefits is the most comprehensive compared to the other hospitals, it covers personal, extended sick leave, bereavement, family/medical and military leave as well as paid time off for vacations, Virtua also provided the same paid leaves while Lourdes and Genesis had less. Kennedy does not have 401k plans, provisions for elder care, on-site child care, free basic health care, quarter century club, relocation assistance and series/savings bond. Virtua and Lourdes, has on-site child care and only Virtua offers free basic health care while Virtua and Genesis has 401k. On the other hand, Kennedy has 403b plans, has a credit union, and invests on internal career development, adequate parking and referral bonuses, as well as sign on bonus, transfer opportunities, a wellness program and workers compensation. In sum, Kennedy has a very attractive benefits program, what it does not offer can be compensated by the other benefits that they provide, for example they do not have free basic health care, but their health insurance coverage is from vision, dental and medicines. VirtuaÃ¢â¬â¢s benefits package is comparable to Kennedy while Lourdes and Genesis have fewer benefits.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
As a business owner, and manager the need for a way to manage our information is essential. The ability to handle the overwhelming amount of data and information that goes through a company every day could be a key factor in whether a business fails or succeeds. (Ebert & Griffin 2005) The system in which we collect and use this information is called an Information System (IS). An IS is used in financial accounting, managerial accounting, by laborers, and executives. In my basket shop, an Information System is what allows us to keep track of orders, from the time they are received to when they are delivered. It keeps track of customer information, the supplies ordered, what supplies have been used, and whether we need to reorder. IS also keeps track of what we are spending, how much we are making, and whether we are making a profit or loss. There is so much more this system does for us, but basically lets us be more efficient, offer better customer service, and allows us to see our problem areas. We can then correct any problems, and set better goals and plans for our future. The use of the Information System has allowed us to hire fewer employees, and be a lot more competitive in the market. I have to say if we did not have any kind of way to manage the information we receive, we could not be as efficient, which would lead to customer dissatisfaction, and in the end we would go out of business. We all know that in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Businesses are expected to be proficient by responding quickly in fulfilling all orders correctly and with a timely delivery. Ã¢â¬Å"Web sites are becoming a vital communication tool Ã¢â¬â almost as valuable as the telephone, and much more flexible and economical than a printed brochure or flierÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Internet UseÃ¢â¬ , 2000) With the use of email and the internet we will have drastic reductions in cost, increased speed in communication time, and a larger customer reach and satisfaction. Email will allow us to save money on stamps and paper, cut response time to a minimum, and send advertisements about sales to previous customers who took this option. A problem that used to take days to handle before by mail, waiting for papers to arrive by mail etc, is now handled in minutes. Without the internet, we would not be able to offer a virtual store front online, which allows us to reach customers, thousands of miles away,Ã that we would not reach otherwise. The online store, will give the customers the option of having their basket delivered, or they can order ahead of time and pick up at the store location. The internet provides access to the World Wide Web (WWW). With the WWW we can do more cost efficient and quicker research on our competitors, suppliers, and the local economic status. Being better informed, we will be able to keep our prices fair and reasonable, yet still make a profit. Through the use of the internet, and help from a GPS tracker, we will be able to keep track of packages being delivered. This will allow us to keep our customers better informed as to when they will receive their basket and make sure they donÃ¢â¬â¢t get lost. The World Wide Web will also allow us to accept payment options that we would not be able to afford otherwise. With the help of ProPay and PayPal we will be able to take payments with credit cards that we would not be able to offer if the internet was not available. In conclusion, with the help of email and the internet, we will be able provide faster, dependable, more cost efficient service, and in return have better customer satisfaction. Information technology has become an important part of most of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s businesses, it provides us with a way to process, create and store information. With a Database management program a single piece of data is put into several different files to create useful information. It has allowed us to eliminate the middleman in most cases. In cutting out the middleman, this has allowed quicker response times to situations and increase productivity and set better performance goals. We have more reliable financial statements. It allows you to set up filters, so when looking at certain areas, you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t wasting time looking through useless information. This in turn saves time and saving time saves money. When keeping customerÃ¢â¬â¢s information stored in our system, it allows us to be more personable and develop stronger relationships with them. The use of email, internet, and information technology allows us to do things we wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have dreamed of years ago. We can talk face to face with people while being continents apart, we can find information we need at the touch of a couple of buttons, and in return have become more productive, proficient, reliable, and better planners. Because we have increased ourÃ productivity, and improved our performance due to the technology, we have become more profitable as a result. Resources: Ebert, R.J., & Griffen, R.W. (2005) Business essentials (5th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall. Rooster Graphics International. (2000). Internet use by small business. Retrieved September 29, 2006, from Rooster Graphics website: http://www.rostergraphics.com/ADMIN/SBuse.html
Friday, September 13, 2019
The effect of diffrent Concentrations of Auxin on pinto seed stem ilongation - Research Paper Example The experiment conducted by students to examine the effects of different concentration of auxin to the growth of pinto beans showed that regardless of the level of auxin used in each experiment, auxin caused retarded growth to pinto bean seeds. Introduction According to Bewley (1057), growth hormones have different effects on plants depending on the nature of the plants, quantity of the hormones used, type of the hormones and the part of the plant in which the hormones are in contact with. This knowledge has enabled those growth hormones or auxin to be used for different purposes in crop husbandry and have enabled plants to react to the external stimuli that would otherwise cause harm to the plant (Lucia, et.al, 153). The student carried out an experiment in order to examine the effect of different auxin concentrations on elongation of the stem of pinto beans. In the experiment, the student selected fifteen beans picked indiscriminately (Thimann, & Lane, 541). The student divided the seeds into three groups of five seeds each and planted each group in a separate pot. The first pot acted as trial experiment and was watered with plain water without any auxin. In the second pot, 500ppm concentration of the auxin was added to the water while in the third pot a different auxin concentration of 500ppm was added to the water used for watering the seed. ... The outcome observation varies from plant to another and depends on the amount of auxin used in each case. Methods In our Plant Independent Investigation, the experiment was set up by labeling three pots, Ã¢â¬Å"tap waterÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"500 ppm auxinÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"5000 ppm auxinÃ¢â¬ . Each of the pots was filled with the same amount of soil (filled 1 inch to the brim). A total of 15 red kidney beans were randomly selected from the seed packet and 5 seeds were planted on each pot. The seeds were buried in the soil with only the tip exposed. The seeds were labeled 1-5 on a piece of tape wrapping around the exterior of each pot. Each pot was watered with 35 ml of tap water. In addition to the tap water, 5 squirts of the 500 ppm auxin were squirted onto each of the 5 seeds in the pot labeled Ã¢â¬Å"500 ppm auxinÃ¢â¬ . In the pot labeled Ã¢â¬Å"5000 ppm auxinÃ¢â¬ , 5 squirts of 5000 ppm auxin were squirted onto each of the 5 seeds. In the third pot, only tap water was used and no auxin at all. The team members measured stem growth in plants each day for seven days. The height of stem growth was measured for all 15 plants and recorded in the data table. The plants were watered with 35 ml of tap water daily and given their appropriate solution treatment. The plants in the control pot only received the 35 ml of tap water. The plants in the Ã¢â¬Å"500 ppm auxinÃ¢â¬ pot received 35 ml of tap water and 5 drops (per seed) of 500 ppm auxin. The plants in the Ã¢â¬Å"5000 ppm auxinÃ¢â¬ pot received 35 ml of tap water and 5 drops (per seed) of 5000 ppm auxin. For this experiment, a statistical examination was conducted in the form of a t-test (Richard, 63). The t-test compares the growth means of each of the samples to the control (DI water). Therefore, the red kidney bean plants
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Company Law - Essay Example Ã Explanations of the options available to John with reference to relevant statutory provisions and case law On the initiative undertaken by John with regards to changing the legal formality of the business, there are a number of options available; I would advise him to incorporate his business since it will offer him a number of advantages relating to returns and management of the business. Incorporation entails the aspect of registering a business entity under the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ Act where it runs its activities as a separate legal entity in which the owner is free from the liabilities of the business. The following are the benefits attached to incorporation of a business: a. The business once registered as a separate entity i.e. as a company, it acquires independent corporate existence features, upon these features, the owner is distinct from the company and therefore cannot bear any liability of the company or be compelled to pay any debt owed by the entity.1 b. The business once registered will start living its own legal life upon which all the liabilities which John in his earlier sole proprietorship, would to bear as an entrepreneur. He will be protected by having limited liabilities in that only the charges for shares and capital he will incur after which his personal property, is safeguarded from any liability the company may suffer. c. A company has a characteristic of perpetual existence and under this feature cannot end unless under the provided legal mechanisms. Once he registers his business as a company, it has ability to never die as the death of the owner cannot affect the existence of the company.2 d. The company once registered, is required to be run by professionals and proper management will be achieved unlike other modes of running business activities. e. Unlike in his current business organisation, a company once registered under the Act t acquires the ability to own separate property in that, it can hold the property in its own name and this deters any other persons even its directors, from claiming the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s assets. f. Also, with the ability to transfer the shares of the company, there is a room to raise more capital further facilitating the aspect of increasing production by expanding business activities. g. The aspect of incorporation also attracts numerous merits of taxations. This achievement of saving taxes is done through for instance, leasing companyÃ¢â¬â¢s property from which one reduce the amount of tax paid since the holders of such leases are to pay property taxes. This advantage has been well developed in our jurisprudence such as in the case of Macaura V Northern Assurance ltd, whereby in this case the claimant who had the majority shareholding of the company had gone to court to claim for compensation from an insurance company upon the fire tragedy which burnt all the company properties, their honourable justices were of the opinion that the companies properties belong to the company and not the holder of the large number shares and only the company through its agents can claim this compensation. This position clearly outlines the fact that the properties of the company are safeguarded as those of the company and in case of any damage on them still the members of the company cannot be held liable of the same. h. By creation of an independent corporate existence, the owner will be able to keep a private and confidential identity away from that of business.3 i. Also when he
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Untitled (Society Portrait) - Essay Example On the first gaze at the portrait, it seems that the lady definitely belongs to the aristocratic segment of the society. Lying halfÃ¢â¬âseated on a couch, the lady seems a bit pensive in mood. The color of her skin, hair and eyes indicate that she is European by race. Interestingly, only very few colors are used in the portrait. Yellow, white, grey and shades of brown both deep and light are schematically used in the picture. At the same time, one can argue as that these coolers are building a theme for the portrait of the anonymous lady as well. Very interestingly, the background colors are very much different and the painter uses light and dark shades of blue along with tinge and shades of brown over it which is quite well synchronized and chosen deliberately as the color scheme of the portrait is on the lighter and drab side. Use of light is done meticulously throughout the portrait and the lines are so fine that nobody will ever find in determining the mood and gesture of the lady. The couch on the other hand is casted with the hue of red color and here too the use of brown both light and dark shades have been well organized keeping in mind the actual color scheme of the portrait. Taking a gaze at the socio-cultural aspect of the society portrait apart from its technical side, it can be well asserted that the hair style and the kind of wardrobe, the lady is putting up indicates a time frame of early half of the twentieth century. During that time, butterfly sleeves and use of shrugs, stoles and veils were very common. The lady is also putting up a necklace made of some yellow beads; the choice of simple yet exquisite jewelry in terms of both the necklace and the ear-ring and wristlet on the left hand is showing a mark of classy style. The lady is probably holding her bag or a veil black in color and very interestingly the side of the couch is having dark brown and black hues which is posited parallel to the ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s black
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Marketing Communication Manager for Local Chain of Fast-food - Assignment Example The market, contribution, and limitation of competitors are central to competitor analysis (Sekhar 2010 p.67). And it is a systematic review of competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s activities for gaining competitive advantage (Harris 2009 p.24). KFC remains the most important challenge for the Burger Hut. KFC has spread across the world and has largely been able to open various branches and franchises in almost all countries, including in the mainland China. Furthermore, it has been observed that the KFC has largely been to retain its current market share in China. And its current market share and market position have largely been supported by various factors. KFC has a strong brand image. Brand and quality are two words that are mostly used interchangeably. And when this is applied to KFC, it can be easily extracted that they collectively represent KFCÃ¢â¬â¢s image in the minds of its customer. It is relevant to highlight that it is the prime contribution of KFC brand image that has enabled the company to retain its market share in China and in other countries where it is currently operating. It would not be incorrect to say that effective marketing strategy has also played its role in making the KFC brand image more competitive and unique as well. The KFC has adopted different marketing strategy in which it gives more importance to all those methods which enable the company to penetrate the different markets. For example, in some countries, the KFC has opened up its branches and in other countries; it has issued the franchise ownership to the local investors.
The different directions in Judaism - Essay Example Most people translate the Halakha as a Jewish law, however, in the real sense, it means the path. That is the manner in which people ought to live. On this basis, most Jews who lived in the diaspora used the Halakha as a source of their religious and civil laws. In the contemporary and modern Jewish society, the personal and the family laws are always under the authority of the rabbi courts. On this basis, the family and personal values are always under the guidance of the Halakha. In interpreting the Halakha, there are three main Jewish directions, namely the Orthodox, the liberal, and the Hasidism directions. The Orthodox Jews believe in the Halakha as a religious system (Landesmann and Jones, 2012). They believe that the Halakha is a revelation of the will of God. Orthodox Jews believe that the Rabbis have a duty of interpreting the written Torah, where its provisions are not clear. However, they must only to do so with the regulations specified by Moses, at the mountain of Sinai. These regulations under consideration were transmitted orally, and they are clearly explained in the book of Talmud. Orthodox Jews believe that no rabbi has an authority to change the Jewish laws contained in the Talmud and the Torah, all they can do is to give an interpretation of these laws. However, their interpretations are subject to change, and reconsideration. According to the Orthodox Judaism, the role of a woman is dynamic and complex. Women under the Orthodox Judaism are allowed to engage in business, to observe the Sabbath, to engage in activities aimed for their personal development, and this includes academics, etc. The role of Jewish Orthodox women revolve around the mentioned areas. However, the Halakha does not identify the specific duties and roles of women amongst the Orthodox Jews; however, the orthodox Jews believe that the Halakha only provides guidance on how women should live. The orthodox Jews believe in the role of a
Monday, September 9, 2019
Politeness Theory - Essay Example Primarily, the theory focuses on the sequential context of utterances, which is deemed critical for the comprehensive message interpretation; this is nevertheless examined alongside other conversational factors such as tone and volume. This theory can be applied to a diverse range of social and professional or academic situations including but not limited to classroom pedagogy and language teaching. This paper will critically examine the politeness theory by carrying out a critical analysis several journal articles dedicated to various aspects of the concept with particular attention to its application in a pedagogical context as well as an analysis of the various disputations that have been directed towards challenging it. Summary of the politeness Theory The fundamental notion behind Brown and Levinson politeness theory is the face, which they defined as the public self-image that each individual in a society desires to claim for him/herself. They created a binary framework in whic h the face was categorized as two divergent albeit related aspects namely the negative and positive face. The positive face is characterized with the self-image, which holds, and it encapsulates their inherent desire to gain approval and appreciation from other people. The negative face is characterized by oneÃ¢â¬â¢s not wanting to have their actions inhibited or constrained by or for the sake of others; in the context of this theory politeness refers to the steps that individuals take in the interests of preservation of both their face and that of their audience. The term has been explicitly defined as the redressive action through which individualÃ¢â¬â¢s counterbalance the effects of face threatening facts (FTAs) redressive is contextually applied in reference to actions that give or reinforce face to the audience of the message (Johnson, Roloff & Riffee, 2004). It is suggested that in communication, whether written, face-to-face of through other media, human beings perpetuall y attempt to maintain each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s face. This is manifested in the fact that they often try their outmost to avoid creating through discourse, embarrassing or humiliating situations for each other in order to preserve self-esteem. FTAs are defined as action that infringes on the need of the patient of the information to maintain their self-esteem; therefore, one can say that there are acts that intricacy poses a threat to face (Foley, 1997). According to the theory, orders, suggestions advises reminders, threats or warning and similar acts pose a threat to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s negative face, on the other hand, positive face is threatened when they incorporate elements of disapproval, ridicule contempt or accusations and insults. Under the positive strategy, politeness is inclined toward the positive self-perception of the speaker has for himself and the listener as well. This confirms that the speaker takes cognizance of the listeners need to be respected and this often happen among close friends or otherwise intimate people (Wilson et al., 1998). The negative politeness on the other hand is based on respect but in a different format as the speaker seeks to respect the negative face wants of the addressee by not interfering with their inherent autonomy of freedom. For example, one may start a request by saying Ã¢â¬Å"
Sunday, September 8, 2019
''How does the teaching environment (both inside and outside the institution) influence EFL teachers' motivation'' - Essay Example unfold within educational institutions by turning them into analytic objects." (Lave, 1996, p.6) This is where Lave sets the problem of context by building on the basic premise that not all learning needs to be worthwhile. Translated, in this paper, the author has used the premise to show the effects of positive learning in individual so as to come up with a composite model for worthwhile learning within a person's experiences rather than simply within the educational institutions from the perspective of a teacher's motivation in an EFL classroom. This motivation and knowledge base takes a person through a variety of life experiences to help him or her practice a profession, meet people and basically, make a life. Motivation has been further defined as a combination of the following elements, by Kleinginna et al, 1981: Another relevant definition of motivation comes from the fact that motivation is deeply linked with emotion. Izard (1990) believed that motivation and the direction of same is reflected in the facial expression of the learner and the teacher. Further, this has been discussed by Yerkes and Dodson (1908) when they have discussed the inverted U shape curve in studying goal orientation in relation with motivation. Maslow (1971) has laid down important definitions and directions for studying the various areas of extrinsic motivation which have been discussed in the paper. These include Cognitive areas and operant conditioning. This has been furthered by Heirarchy of Needs as laid down by Maslow. This has been studied by Norwood (1999) in coping information and seeking information. Motivational factors have been studied in this paper from various viewpoints and definitions as can be seen in the literature review and research background. Mathes (1981) described self actualisation as a major factor in motivation as did William James (1892). Literature Review and Research Background The literature used for this paper has been exhaustive. It has drawn from the work of various scholars so as to understand the nexus between motivation and learning. This paper discusses the outcomes of energy arousal in the field of education through motivation. From there, it goes into finer details as far as aspects of those determinants in cognitive development are concerned. In this regard, the importance of motivation as laid down by Kleinginna et al (1981) have formed an important research element of this paper. These aspects have to do with general and other competencies. Before launching into a discussion of the same, Lave et al have separated intrinsic and extrinsic factors of motivation so as to better understand the basis on which the determinants of positive and negative
Saturday, September 7, 2019
Oppurtunities for Waste Minimization and Their Implementation - Essay Example Therefore, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has instituted its hierarchy of waste minimization ways, which include reduction, recycling, and treatment. Most organizations such as hospitals and schools aim at preserving the balance between the environment, and protecting peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Also, in most organizations people must comply with environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations issued by the local, state and federal agencies. Thus, this paper will identify opportunities for waste minimization and implementation within an organization. This will include explanation and application of waste minimization methods in the National Fuel Gas Company, and structure and reasoning of the case for and against the implementation. National Fuel Gas Company is a holding company that was incorporated in 1902. It operates in four segments of business, which include utility segment, pipeline and storage, exploration and production, and energy marketing segme nt. The company operates its own natural gas treating and processing, as well as gathering pipeline facilities. Each of the four segments has its own function under different management. The utility segment operations are conducted by the national fuel gas distribution corporation, which sells and provides transportation of natural gas services. The pipeline and storage segment operations are done by the national fuel gas supply corporation, which provides transportation and storage natural gas. Moreover, the exploration and production segment is conducted by Seneca Resources Corporation, which focuses on the development of purchase of natural gas and oil reserves, while the energy marketing segment operations are done by the national fuel resources that markets natural gas. Waste minimization methods Waste minimization is considered the most effective and beneficial operating procedure. For instance, in a natural gas treating and processing plant, there are many economical and tech nical, waste minimization methods that can be used. For this reason, many oil and gas operators have discovered several waste minimization opportunities and implemented them. Thus, they are enjoying the benefits such as increased revenue, reduced operating and waste management costs, reduced regulatory compliance concerns, improved company image and public relations and reduced potential liability concerns. According to Cheremisinoff (1995), there are three key methods of waste minimization, which include source reduction also known as pollution prevention, recycling, and treatment. Source reduction is the most sought-after method of waste minimization, which reduces or eliminates the generation contaminants at the source, or release of chemical waste from the source. It involves the reduction of the impact of chemical wastes on the environment to the greatest extent. The recycling method is also a desirable approach in waste minimization in which the waste material that is used for a certain purpose is treated and reused in the same or another process. Source reduction and recycling, form the waste minimization. Treatment is the last waste minimization method. It can be conducted in laboratories through elementary neutralization, or through other processes such as chemical,
Friday, September 6, 2019
Immanuel Kant Essay The following is taken from Immanuel KantÃ¢â¬â¢s The Metaphysics of Morals (Part II, Ã¢â¬Å"The Science of RightÃ¢â¬ ), translated by W. Hastie with emendations and paragraph numbers added by Jeremy Anderson. The complete text is available free online here. In this excerpt, Kant first explains what crime is and the different sorts of crimes (paragraph 1), which is not very important for our purposes. He then presents his view that punishment is justified by the criminals having committed a crime (par. 2). This is to be contrasted with other theories of punishment such as the Utilitarian theory, according to which punishment is justified by the good it brings to society. Kant rejects the Utilitarian theory for two reasons. First, he believes it treats criminals as mere means to others good; KantÃ¢â¬â¢s Categorical Imperative forbids this. Second, the Utilitarian theory could, possibly, justify punishing an innocent person because of the good it might bring to society. To Kant, this sort of injustice is absolutely intolerable. Having explained why we punish people Kant goes on to discuss how and how much to punish criminals (par. 3-8). Here he asserts that the hurt done to the criminal should equal the hurt the criminal did to others, both in amount and in kind (in class we are calling this the Equal Punishment version of the lex talionis). The rest of the piece mostly explains what he means by this, with particular emphasis on the need for the death penalty. In paragraphs 8 and 10 Kant considers some interesting exceptions to the rule that murderers must be executed. Okay, so Kant believed that punishment should always be in response to a crime punishing someone to protect society or to deter others is immoral. Kant goes on to say that it is also immoral for a person to commit a crime, and not be punished. In other words, every crime merits a punishment; it is Kants form of equality. Kant refers to this as jus talionis, which is loosely translates as the right of retaliation. However, Kant was opposed to punishing people if it took away their humanity. In other words, if a person tortures people, that person should not be punished by torture, because doing so would be dehumanizing OURSELVES. In other words, it would be stooping to the level of the torturer. Kant did believe in Capital Punishment in fact, he insisted on it. He states in his book, Metaphysics on Morals, that according to Jus Talionis, murderers MUST die there is no earthly punishment other than death that can balance out a murder, and thus preserve Jus Talionis, the balance between crime and punishment. It is like a scale the side of justice must balance the side of injustice. An Exposition of KantÃ¢â¬â¢s, ArendtÃ¢â¬â¢s, and MillÃ¢â¬â¢s Moral Philosophy Immanuel Kant adheres to Deontological ethics. His theory offers a view of morality based on the principle of good will and duty. According to him, people can perform good actions solely by good intentions without any considerations to consequences. In addition, one must follow the laws and the categorical imperative in order to act in accordance with and from duty. Several other philosophers such as Hannah Arendt discuss KantÃ¢â¬â¢s moral philosophy. In her case study: Ã¢â¬Å"The Accused and Duties of a Law-Abiding CitizenÃ¢â¬ , Arendt examines how Adolf EichmannÃ¢â¬â¢s actions conformed to KantÃ¢â¬â¢s moral precepts but also how they ran of afoul to his conception of duty. In contrast, John Stuart Mill adopts a teleological view of moral philosophy. He exposes his view of consequentialism and utilitarianism to argue that an action is morally right only to the extent that it maximizes the aggregate happiness of all parties involved regardless of the motive. In the present paper, I will expose KantÃ¢â¬â¢s moral precepts and the importance of duty in his Deontological principles. Then, I will evaluate ArendtÃ¢â¬â¢s report on Adolf Eichmann to analyze the ways in which his actions were in accordance to or against KantÃ¢â¬â¢s moral philosophy. I will conclude my discussion with an evaluation of MillÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to morality in order to examine the differences between his teleological philosophy and KantÃ¢â¬â¢s ethical principles. KantÃ¢â¬â¢s moral philosophy is based on the categorical imperative (CI), good will, and duty. According to the CI, it is an absolute necessity, a command that humans should accord with universalizable maxims to treat people as ends in themselves and exercise their will without any concerns about the consequences or conditions of their actions. This concept can also be expressed in systematic terms by the two following formulations.
Thursday, September 5, 2019
The Importance Of Education In Malaysia Education Essay Education in Malaysia has gone through extensive changes throughout the years. These constant changes or reforms are carried out with perhaps only one vision in mind, and that is to improve the current existing teaching and learning procedures in schools and higher institutions of learning. Such action highlights the governments endless efforts in trying to improve the quality of education for its people. After a decade into the New Millennium, the education scenario is more pressed to undertake even more improvements in trying to cope with the demands and expectations of education in the 21st century. We can no longer be satisfied with what we have, but instead there is a need to constantly compare ourselves to that of more developed nations, and this is especially true with the field of education. This is to ensure that our people will be able to compete internationally in this borderless world. This is very much in-line with the vision of our longest-serving Prime Minister Tun Mahathir Mohammad. Tun, back in the 90s shared his vision and dreams for this nation through Wawasan 2020 or Vision 2020. According to his article Malaysia on Track Vision 2020, as a doctor he is attracted to the optometrist measurement of Vision 2020 which indicates 100 percent perfect vision. He further explains that Vision 2020 in relation to the future of this country would be the quest for Malaysia to have clear vision of our future as in where we want heading and what we want to be in the New Millennium. As Malaysia plans to transform into fully-developed nation, education becomes the priority of the government since it is one of the most powerful entities that would determine the success or failure of the nation. The future of any country depends on its people. It is therefore important to ensure that everyone is equipped with the necessary knowledge, skills and values to survive in this highly competitive and globalised world which is impacted by rapid development in science, technology and information. The importance of education has become more paramount especially in our Nations process of moving from an economy-based on labor-intensive and lower-end manufactured products to k-economy or knowledge economy. The Ministry of Education (MOE) and The Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) are two bodies which are responsible in ensuring that nation is moving towards the specified target. This is clearly outlined in the 2 key thrusts under the National mission (Mid-term Review of Ninth, 2008); Thrust 2: to raise capacity for knowledge and innovation and nurture first class mentality. Thrust 3: to address persistent socio-economic inequalities constructively and productively. In line with the drive towards developing the nations K-Economy, the current economical trend is to focus on the advancement and rise in emphasis on the area of science and technology. As a measure to achieve this vision, the government has adopted a holistic approach in Malaysian education system by emphasizing on mastery knowledge, intellectual capital and developing technology and entrepreneurial skills. Since science and technology play a major role in contributing to a more developed nation, the government seems to give more emphasis on teaching and learning process of science in the primary, secondary and higher education. It is coherent with Malaysias aim which to produce more experts in science or in general to produce a future generation of intellectuals. Therefore, as science educators, it is important to be aware of the demand of the nation. There is a need to ensure that the teaching and learning process is focused in producing individuals who fulfill the governments aspiration. Hence, it requires teachers to have passion, creativity, intelligence and determination to make sure that the delivery of knowledge is truly effective. Among other things, methods in teaching, teachers knowledge and performances are frequently being observed to ensure that teachers remain excellent in their teaching. This is because; teachers play a major role in ensuring the effectiveness and the success of the actual delivery and implementation of the Malaysian curriculum. Therefore, when planning a lesson, teachers need to be aware of the objectives of the curriculum by incorporating good content values into the lesson, implement the curriculum designed by the ministry and at the end of it all, assess the outcomes of the curriculum. But it is not enough to focus only on the teacher without looking at the relevancy of the Malaysian science curriculum, which actually contributes to the success or failure of science education. In fact, it is actually a major issue that is constantly discussed among science educators and academicians in Malaysia. Is the Malaysian science curriculum measurable to that of the standards of other countries? This is pertinent question that needs to be answered. Therefore it would be useful to compare Malaysian science curriculum with other developed countries in order to determine the standard of Malaysian curriculum. 1.1 Background of Study This comparative study between the Malaysian science curriculum and the Steiner Waldorf in science curriculum was conducted primarily to gain insights on the much-researched and discussed about Steiner curriculum. Having experienced the Malaysian science curriculum and after pursuing an honors degree in science education, the researcher is very familiar with the countrys science education curriculum, especially issues pertaining to its content and pedagogical approach. However, the researcher is with the opinion that new knowledge of new educational curriculum can be useful in ensuring better quality of science education. This is important in view of providing the best in science in the context of Malaysian schools. In view of trying to improve the existing curriculum it would be interesting to find out the standard of Malaysian science curriculum in comparison to other developed countries. This is important to ensure that our students will be able to compete globally. Comparative study of curriculum across countries provides background information about how to understand existing strengths and weaknesses of the present curriculum (Moosa Che Azura Che An, n.d). Therefore, this research can suggest ways to help students to perform in the subject of science and also help science teachers in their teaching. This is crucial as over the past few years, there have been a lot of problems discussed about the Malaysian science curriculum and the major part of the discussion revolves around the teaching and learning process. As a result, it raised the researchers interest to look into the matter so that the researcher could discover ways to improve the Malaysian science curriculum in order to create effective lessons yet in enjoyable environment for the students to learn science. In Malaysia, the idea associated with science education is intended to be in-line with existing policies which is specifically to prepare students for examination. There are a few officially recommended practices for science teaching such as constructivist teaching, mastery learning, science process skills, thinking skills, and metacognition, self-directed, self-paced and self-assessed learning and others that, if carried out properly can ensure the successful and effective lessons. Current thinking in science is looking towards a paradigm that is more inclusive of the diversity that exists in our life-worlds (Revathi, R et al, 2003). Science is also perceived as a process of meaning-making and countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia and South Africa (Aikenhead, 2000) are implementing science teaching approaches that incorporate learners cultural and linguistic bearings. For example the science classroom needs to be one that is interesting and multi-discursive which pe rmits the teacher and students to work together in creating knowledge. However, such an approach or a feature is not common in the Malaysian science curriculum. The idea to produce a generation that is ideally competent in science seems difficult and this seems to suggest that there is need for Malaysian science curriculum to be reviewed. From the objectives of the curriculum to the issues of assessment, everything becomes crucial and needs thorough reevaluation. The features and function of science discourse include formulating hypotheses, designing investigations, collecting data, drawing conclusions and communicating results (Chamot OMalley, 1994) and these are the skills which are basically being emphasized by the teacher in the classroom. Sadly, the application is not obvious in the students daily life especially in the context of Malaysia. By conducting this research, the researcher hopes to be able to get some insights into the Steiner Waldorf curriculum and the Malaysian science curriculum. Having done this, it is hoped that the research suggestions may highlight existing gaps in curricular, pedagogical or other aspects through comparison between Malaysian science curriculum with Steiner Waldorf education. From the suggestions made, hopefully the teaching and learning of science will be more effective and more enjoyable for the students. By having a good time in learning science through effective methods employed by the teacher, the researcher believes that it will help students to perform better in all the science subjects and at the same time acquire scientific knowledge in a wider perspective. Apart from that, it will also help to produce all rounded students as outlined in the National Education Philosophy. 1.2 Statement of the Problem The Integrated Curriculum for Secondary School (Kurrikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah, KBSM) is the continuation of the New Primary School Curriculum (Kurikulum Baru Sekolah Rendah, KBSR). This change in the curriculum structure is the governments strategy to shift the emphasis of education that existed in 1970s to a more contemporary holistic concept of learning that encompasses moral, religious, social, physical, and intellectual development of a person (Rosnani.H, 2004). In science education, holistic education aims to produce students who are able to relate the content that they learned in the classroom to their daily life. It refers to their ability to use scientific thinking and processes in a wider context so that it will highlight the effectiveness of the KBSM which subscribes to the principles of lifelong learning. After having informal interviews with a few seniors teachers and lectures with science education background, the researcher found out that Malaysian science curri culum somehow does not support the holistic education as being mentioned and fails to achieve the intended outcomes. The following is the opinion given by the senior lecturer who was interviewed by the researcher; My hunch is the general population of the students does not relate what they learn to everyday situation because many studies have shown that students do not like science and they find science isolated or do not associate with them. So we can infer from that the students do not related what they learned nor practice their scientific attitudes. (personal communication) This is further supported by the results of Trends in International Math Science, TIMMS assessment in science taken by Malaysian students in 2003. The TIMMS assessment is designed to help to improve students learning in math and science where the assessment generally focuses on the students mathematics and science skills. In the assessment, our students scored an average of 504 which exceeds the international average of 474 (Martin et al, 2004) and placed Malaysia to be at 19th out of 44 participating countries. The performance actually is not truly impressive if compared to the performance of students from other developing countries in Asia pacific such as Singapore Chinese-Taipei and Republic of Korea. The line of argument is what are the aspects that lacking in Malaysian students since those nations secured the top 3 placing and therefore have clearly performed better than our students. Another interesting insight which the researcher gathered through informal interviews with the senior teachers and lectures, as well as his personal experience as a science student and in-service teacher is the fact that Malaysian education system gives too much focus on examination. In order to survive in the Malaysian education system, students need to excel in public examinations (UPSR, PMR, SPM). Somehow the situation affects teaching and learning process which is a part of the curriculum. Teachers admitted that the focus is only to finish the syllabus within the time allocated by the school administration. Through informal interviews with the students, the researcher also discovered that students think it is easier for them to focus and prepare themselves for the examination instead of engaging in meaningful learning. The researcher also found out that because of the need to finish up the syllabus, the lessons were not conducted properly by teachers. Teachers rarely make reflections on their teaching. Even though the accomplishment of the objective and learning outcomes are the measurement to a successful lesson in Malaysian education system; most of the time, teachers do not have attempt to find out whether their students have actually acquired the specified learning outcomes. An effective science classroom should be able to make students think and process the knowledge received in the classroom. Ironically, the scenario does not happen in most Malaysian classrooms. Because of the examination matter, the researcher believes that teachers tend to neglect their method in teaching science. In true fact, a science class should be filled with interesting and varying activities so that students will enjoy the class. However, in reality most science lessons, more often than not, are not only plain and d ull but also could kill students excitement in learning the subject. This is another concern of the researcher since there is a tendency that the situation mentioned above could cause the students to lose interest in learning science. The Steiner Waldorf education is similar to the Malaysian education system in terms of its emphasis on the development of human beings and in the provision of holistic education. What is different is in terms of the implementation and the effectiveness of the curriculum. Scieffer and Busse (2001) in their research discovered that the students from Steiner school did better than students in state school in United States. Other research (Easton, 1997; Oberman, 1997; Uhrmacher, 1993b) also suggested a positive relationship between Steiner school education, learning and students achievement. Moreover, research on Steiner education also mentioned about consistency of Steiner students performance in National test from 2000 to 2004. Ogletree (2000) in investigating the creative ability among the students in England, Scotland and Germany through the use of Torrance Test of Creative Thinking Ability; found that generally Steiner school students obtained significantly higher creativity scores than their state school peers. It actually reflects the effectiveness of the emphasis on creativity in Steiner curriculum. Jalinek and Sun (2003) in research that they conducted which aimed to compare the education in Steiner and mainstream schools revealed that, the Steiner children who tested in logical reasoning and science activity which developed by TIMMS international comparative study performed better than students from other schools. The scientific reasoning of Steiner school students was found to be outstanding. The research suggested that the result of the test is actually influenced by the culture of the Steiner education which taught less content to the students and the Steiner education itself creates less examination pressure to the students. Indeed, the Steiner Waldorf science curriculum has its own unique approach and method which proved to encourage effective learning. Such a situation ceases to exist in the Malaysian science curriculum. It is with this problem in mind that the researcher has decided to embark on this comparative research study with the hope to draw on some of the best practices to be incorporated into Malaysian classroom. 1.3 Research Objectives The main objective of the research is to compare the Malaysian education and Steiner Waldorf education in science curriculum with respect to objective, content, implementation or instruction and the assessment. In comparing both curriculums, the researcher wish to find out the characteristics of Steiner education science classroom and wish to look at their strengths and uniqueness which is present and try to see how this is different from the Malaysian science curriculum. From the data gathered, a thorough analysis will be made by the researcher, and the findings of the research could be the basis for the researcher to give suggestions for the betterment of Malaysian science curriculum as well as to bridge the gap between these two curriculums. Research Questions Two research questions are as follows: What are the characteristics of Steiner Waldorf science class? How does the Steiner Waldorf science curriculum differ from the Malaysian Secondary Science Curriculum with respect to their objectives, content, implementation/instruction, and evaluation/assessment? 1.4 Significance of the Study This research aims to look at the Malaysian science curriculum. By doing this, it will help us to have a clear picture of how a curriculum functions and at the same time, it allows us to measure the success of the curriculum. Many teachers have expressed their discontentment over current problems faced by the teachers and students in science education, and the blame is usually on the ineffectiveness of the curriculum. This is an alarming problem as it could affect the number of students who are interested in science subjects and if this happens, Malaysia will actually sway from its efforts to achieve Vision 2020. This comparative study of the Malaysian science curriculum and the Steiner science curriculum is crucial in realizing our dreams of producing human beings who know their ability and self-potential. This is the core value stressed in the Steiner Waldorfs curriculum which aims to provide learners with meaningful learning and turn them into deep learner. Steiner Waldorf students are encouraged to generate creative ideas and this indirectly nurtures the students to be critical thinkers. Therefore it is very crucial for the researcher to find out in what aspects that the Malaysian science curriculum can be improved by adapting the Steiner Waldorf education. Hopefully, the findings of the comparative research will help to improve science education in Malaysian schools. 1.5 Research Limitations Time constraint is the major limitations of this research. The researcher believes it is ideal to have longer time for the researcher to collect data regarding Steiner Waldorf education in United Kingdom, UK. Longer period of study will able the researcher to do observations in greater depth and visit more schools to be included in study. Instead of time constraint, monetary is also one of the limitations in this research. Since the research was funded by the university, the researcher has to complete the process of data collection within the stipulated time. However, what is done by the researcher is sufficient to have a general picture of the difference between the two curriculums. 1.6 Scope of Study The focus of the research is only to compare the Malaysian education and Steiner Waldorf science curriculum. This study involved data collected from one school in Plymouth and a Steiner Waldorf Department in University of Plymouth. Since this is a preliminary comparative study of these two curriculums, focus will briefly highlight the four parts of the curriculum which is the objectives, contents, implementation and the assessment of both curriculums. However, extra emphasis will be given on the implementation and assessment procedure as compared to the first two parts in the curriculum. Though it would have been ideal to be able to carry out observation and interviews in more schools across the UK, these two chose are sufficient to give a clear preliminary picture of what Steiner Waldorf education involves. 1.7 Operational Definition Malaysian science curriculum Malaysian science curriculum refers to science curriculum which developed and implemented in Malaysia for secondary level. However, in order to show the continuation and the development or progression of this curriculum the researcher wills sometime highlights the science curriculum at the primary level. Steiner Waldorf Education Steiner Waldorf Education refers to the education that founded by the Rudolf Steiner in 1919. This education is worldwide and does not refers or belong to a specific country. The part of this education that being discuss in this research is its science curriculum. Science Education Science can be defined as knowledge attained through study or practice, or knowledge covering general truths of the operation of general laws, especially as obtained and tested through scientific method and concerned with the physical world. It may also refer as a system of acquiring knowledge where the system uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain about natural phenomena. Science also term which can refer to the organized body of knowledge people has gained using that system. Therefore, the term science education that been using in this research refers to the process of educating science to the students or may refers to the field of science itself. Which the field of science in education that being discussed in this research covers the major branches in science such as biology, physics, chemistry, general science and natural science. Source: Websters New Collegiate Dictionary cited in http://www.sciencemadesimple.com 1.8 Conclusion As a conclusion, review and reform in Malaysian science curriculum is necessary or perhaps a need as we refer to the current educations condition in Malaysia. It has been 53 years that Malaysia achieved its independence, and throughout the 53 years, Malaysia had gone through lots of transformation and changes. However, the researcher believes that, in order for Malaysia to reach to the level of developed country, education should be the foundation of the aspiration. Education in Malaysia requires more changes as well as ideal and realistic policies and implementation, so that it will be able to produce human capitals that are scientific, knowledgeable and competent.