Wednesday, October 30, 2019

None Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 17

None - Assignment Example As matter of fact, the Hindu community must have moved from somewhere. Secondly, Hindu religion traces its origin sometime just before the onset of modernization (Bryant, & Patton, 2005). Notably, the timing of the start of Hinduism and Aryan migration rhyme; supporting the AIT arguments. Moreover, the immigration is assumed to consist of different ethnic groups who after settling united to make a common language and culture. Every theory must be criticized by at least one scholar given that people make different opinions. The critics of AIT are not strong enough to question its viability. For instance, the Aryan inversion theory is based on existence of dead bodies found in a cave (Bryant, & Patton, 2005). However, there is no precise evidence that these bodies were massacred, hence terming the whole theory a weak critique. Though, its not clear whether the Aryans found natives in the region, no invasion evidence exists either. Moreover, the invasion theory was meant to protect colonizers. Culture and social setups differ and may sometimes irritate. Public relations advocate for understanding and accommodating every person’s culture in order to coexist. However, the understanding ought to be two-way, otherwise one party will be humiliated. Non- western cultures are complicated. To me Japanese culture irritates. Though the shame culture has build their reputation, consulting before their tribesmen before making any decision irritates. Secondly, treating strangers with excess suspicion retards their socializing

Monday, October 28, 2019

Samara Aziz 20th century drama coursework Essay Example for Free

Samara Aziz 20th century drama coursework Essay We see how Catherine has an open relationship with her father figure by the way in which she talks and acts around him, but this could be what attracts Eddie to her. Catherine is a very nai ve person. She is a young minded and obviously unaware of her blossoming sexuality. As the play continues, we see Catherine demonstrating a certain closeness to Rodolpho. Now if we take a look at Rodolphos character, we see how he is very different to other men. We see how he likes to sing, dance and make clothes. All these in the 1950s were seen as very feminine but due to Catherines simple intellect she doesnt realise this. All she sees is how he has a very open mind and entertaining character. She is captivated by his charm. We will now look at a conversation between Eddie and Beatrice about Catherine and Rodolpho. Eddie She tell you anything? Beatrice Whats the matter with you? Hes a nice kid what do you want from him? Eddie Thats a nice kid? He gives me the heeby jeebies. Beatrice Ah, go on, youre just jealous. This conversation between Eddie and Beatrice is one of the first signs, which show how Eddie disapproves of Rodolpho. He also talks about him with little respect. But a question to consider, is does Eddie dislike Rodolpho because of the fondness which is growing between him and Catherine or because he is unsure of his own feelings for Rodolpho? Dramatic tension begins to arise between Eddie and Rodolpho as we progress through the play. Maybe because Rodolpho is enforcing Eddie to think about his own feminine side. This, however, could be frustrating Eddie, because of the fact that he is confused about his feelings. Beatrice also plays a part as she feels how her relationship with Eddie is rather dry. Eddie Why? What worries you got? Beatrice When am I gonna be a wife again? Eddie I aint been feeling too good. They bother me since they came. We see Beatrice asking Eddie when shes going to be wife again or in other words when their sexual relationship is going to bloom. This shows tension between the two characters as we see them both feeling very uncomfortable with each. I would stage right, while Beatrice is stood directly in front of him, but the two characters would avoid looking straight at each other. The narrator in this play also has the role of a character, which makes him different to other narrators. His role changes from narrator to the lawyer, Alfieri. As a character, Alfieri listens and gives advice to Eddie. He slips from being a narrator to a character. Here we see a conversation between Alfieri and Eddie. Alfieri But, Eddie, shes a woman now. Eddie Hes stealing her from me! Alfieri She wants to get married Eddie she cant marry you, can she? Here we see a heated conversation about Catherine and the fact that Eddie is unhappy about her marrying Rodolpho. Alfieri listens to Eddie but also tells him what he thinks. As a narrator, the story is told through flashbacks pointing out major elements of the play such as the beginning paragraph in Act 2. Alfieri On the twenty-third of that December a case of Scotch whisky slipped from a net while being unloaded The narrator uses precise language to make sure the audience understand. A very clear description is given. If you looked into the narrators character I would describe his as a kind of a symbol of fate as he is watching down on all the characters. If I were to stage the narrator, Id stage him visible, behind the set, on a bridge, looking down on all of the characters. This symbolises the view from the bridge. By using the thought of the bridge, Miller is applying imagery, as the view from the bridge is the narrators view from the bridge, or, societys view from the bridge. I think that the role of the narrator in A View from the Bridge is very effective in expressing the authors concerns as the narrator covers a variety of different aspects, both socially and moralistically. Miller has shown us that as well as telling the story, the narrator can also take over a number of other roles. I think this is a very good device, which Arthur Miller has used and succeeded in doing so. The symbolism and imagery is also variably used to portray certain images, which are used to help picture the scene, such as the bridge. I think Arthur Miller has put a great amount of thought into this play with which he has proved that he can produce to satisfy the audience. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Arthur Miller section.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Handmaids Tale as a Biblical Allusion Essay -- Handmaids Tale Es

The Handmaid's Tale: A Biblical Allusion Imagine a country where choice is not a choice. Â  One is labeled by their age and economical status. Â  The deep red cloaks, the blue embroidered dresses, and the pinstriped attire are all uniforms to define a person's standing in society. Â  To be judged, not by beauty or personality or talents, but by the ability to procreate instead. To not believe in the Puritan religion is certain death. Â  To read or write is to die. Â  This definition is found to be true in the book, The Handmaid's Tale (1986) by Margaret Atwood. Â  It is a heartbreaking story of one young woman and her transformation into the Gilead society, the society described above. In the book, we meet Offred, the narrator of the story. Â  This story is not the first to create a society in which the only two important beliefs in a society are the ability to procreate and a strict belief in God. Â  It is seen several times in the Old Testament, the Bible. Â  The Biblical society is not as rigid as the Republic o f Gilead, which Margaret Atwood has built, but it is very similar. Â  The Handmaid's Tale holds several biblical allusions. The first biblical allusion is that of the Republic of Gilead. Â  Gilead is mentioned several times in the Bible as a place of fertile lands. Â  The Bible states, "To the east [the Israelites] occupied the land. . . , because their livestock had increased in Gilead" (Numbers 32:1, NIV) and "The [tribes], who led very large herds and flocks, saw that the lands of Jazer and Gilead were suitable for livestock" (1 Chronicles 5:9, NIV). Â  The Biblical land of Gilead was a land of prospering livestock. Â  Families and tribes came to Gilead because of the land's lush, green and fertile soil. Â  The Republic of Gilead was also... ...n individual, but each person is noticed only by the clothing that they wear. Imagine a country where the husband is the head of the family, and no other members of the household hold any rights at all. Â  Imagine a country where reading and writing are crimes punishable by death. Â  One can imagine, but no one can comprehend the pain and suffering and emotional death that one must acquire to live in a society such as the Republic of Gilead. This story of the future may very well be a story of the past; a story based upon principles found in the Bible, but taken so literally and enforced so strictly that the country becomes a theocracy to hate. Bibliography Atwood, Margaret. The Handmaid's Tale. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1986. The NIV Study Bible. Barker, Kenneth: General Editor. Grand Rapids, Michigan: The Zondervan Corporation, 1995

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Biogeography as Evidence That Evolution Accounts for Diversity of Life

2) Biogeography is one source of evidence that evolution accounts for the diversity of life. Biogeography is the study of the geographic distribution of species and has contributed evidence for descent from common ancestors, which was hypothesized by Charles Darwin. Darwin and Alfred Wallace were both very interested in biogeography, which provided Darwin with evidence for evolution. Species distribution can be accounted for by ecological factors or by historical factors. The three major historical factors affecting geographic distribution are dispersal, extinction and vicariance. Island biogeography has been extensively studied to show the evolution of species due to geographic barriers. Biogeography along with the history of the earth lends supporting evidence to evolution and the diversity of life on earth. Darwin showed that biogeographic facts make sense if a species has a definite site of origin, achieves a broader distribution by dispersal, and becomes modified giving rise to descendent species in the regions in which it migrates. He noticed that unrelated organisms inhabit parts of the world with similar climates and habitats, such as Old and New World organisms. Darwin also found that organisms of various regions may be different due to barriers or obstacles that may limit migration. He also stated that there is a relation between inhabitants of the same continent or sea but that species differ from place to place. An example of this is aquatic rodents of South America are related to mountainous and grassland rodents of South America, but not to aquatic rodents of North America. Alfred Wallace noticed that several higher taxa had similar distributions and that the composition of biota is more uniform within certain regions then between them. He had collected specimens in the Malay Archipelago and had thought of natural selection. He did extensive field work in the Amazon and noticed that geographic barriers, such as the Amazon River itself, separated the ranges of closely related species. These observations led him to designate several biogeographic realms. He observed that the fauna of Australia and Asia were different and the break between them is known as the Wallace Line. Historical factors affecting geographic distributions of species include extinction, dispersal, and vicariance. Extinction of certain opulations reduces the distribution of species but it also allows for diversification. Extinctions are selective in that some species are more likely to survive then others. For example, gastropods with wide geographic and ecological distributions and those with many species survived the end-Permian extinction. Extinction can lead to diversification in that it resets the stage for evolutionary radiations, perhaps by p ermitting the appearance of new community structures. Futuyma suggests that the extinction of one group permits the efflorescence of others, which is also shown in the fossil record. Dispersal and vicariance are the major hypotheses attributing to a taxon’s distribution. An example of vicarance is taxa that have members on different land masses in the Southern Hemisphere, which is hypothesized to be due to the breakup of Gondwanaland isolating descendents of common ancestors. America, Africa, Madagascar, and India are all home to the freshwater fishes, cichlids. Molecular phylogenetic analyses has shown that two sister clades of cichlids have been found, one consisting of Madagascan and Indian species, and the other of two monophyletic groups, one in Africa and one in South America. However, the splits between the clades are more recent than the breakup of Gondwanaland which suggests that perhaps the cichlids achieved their distribution by dispersal. Both vicariance and dispersal could be the likely cause of the geographic distribution of cichlids. Species expand their ranges by dispersal which is a critical process for geographic isolation in evolution and the current geographic distributions. Most species are restricted to certain biogeographic realms by their dispersal ability but many species have expanded their range due to human transplant. For example, the European starling has expanded in North America following its introduction into New York City in 1896 (Futuyma, 2005). Transplanted species may disrupt the ecosystem at its new location by evolving and adapting to the new environment, possibly causing the extinction of native species. Adaptation to the environment as a primary product of evolution was suggested by Jean Baptiste Lamarck who believed that evolution is the best explanation of the diversity of life. Vicariance is the separation of populations of a widespread species by barriers arising from changes in climate, geology, or habitat. Vicariance can lead to speciation if populations are separated by a geographic barrier and evolve genetic reproductive isolation such that if the barrier disappears, the species can no longer interbreed. Natural selection is a powerful evolutionary force and therefore the genetic changes that result in reproductive isolation in vicariant speciation are likely due to adaptive evolution. Several geological processes can fragment a population into two, such as a mountain range emerging, rivers, lakes, or land bridges. Island biogeography is a very good example of evidence for evolution. Islands are generally where endemic species of plants and animals are found but Darwin observed that most island species are closely related to species from the nearest mainland or neighbouring island. Two islands that have similar environments in different parts of the world are populated by species that are taxonomically affiliated with the plants and animals of the nearest mainland which generally has a different environment. Speciation may occur on islands if a species that disperses from a mainland to an island succeeds in its new environment and gives rise to several new species as populations spread to other islands. Once isolated, geographically separated populations become genetically differentiated as a result of mutation and other processes such as natural selection. Environmental factors are likely to be different from one place to another so natural selection can contribute to geographic variation, differences in the gene pool between populations. Speciation is often a gradual process as the reproductive barriers between the groups is only partial in the beginning but leads to complete reproduction separation (Campbell and Reece, 2002). An example of vicariance and island biogeography is the finches on the Galapagos Islands. Darwin noticed that the finches he collected from the islands were very similar, but that they were in fact different species. Some were unique to individual islands, while other species were distributed on two or more islands that were close together. New finch species had arisen from an ancestral form by the gradual accumulation of adaptations to a different environment. For example, the different beak sizes of the finches are adapted to the specific food available to them on their home island. This is an example of species adapting and evolving to suit their new environment. The Hawaiian Islands are another example of the world’s showcase of evolution and island biogeography. Each island started bare but was gradually populated by species that either rode ocean currents or blew over in the wind, either from distant islands or continents. The physical diversity of each island provides many different environmental opportunities for evolutionary divergence by natural selection. Many of the plants and animals that are currently found on the islands are found nowhere else in the world, they are endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago (Campbell and Reece, 2002). The history of earth also helps to explain the current geographic distribution of species. For example, the emergence of volcanic islands such as the Galapagos opens new environments for species to inhabit and adaptive radiation fills many of the available niches with new species. On a global scale, continental drift is a major factor correlated with the spatial distribution of life and with such evolutionary episodes as mass extinctions followed by increases in biological diversity. The continents drift about earth’s surface on plates of crust floating on the hot mantle and their positions can therefore change relative to one another. At the end of the Paleozoic era, plate movements brought all the landmasses together into a super continent named Pangaea. Species that had been evolving in isolation were brought together at this point and forced to compete. The formation of Pangea reduced shoreline, drained shallow coastal areas, changed the climate and increased the area inland destroying a considerable amount of habitat and reshaping biodiversity. During the Mesozoic, Pangaea broke apart creating new continents that became separate evolutionary areas allowing flora and fauna to diverge. The diversity of life on earth is due to millions of years of evolution. Darwin and Wallace were both important figures in the field of biogeography as their interest and research led to ideas that are still apparent today. Historical geographic factors and the history of the earth are a few aspects that have led to current biodiversity. Biogeography shows compelling evidence that species evolve through natural selection by adapting to new environments. Speciation will continue to occur as the environment changes and as the continents continue to drift. References: Campbell, N. A, and Reece, J. B. 2002. Biology; Sixth Edition. Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco. Futuyma, D. J. 2005. Evolution. Sinauer Associates Inc. , Massachusetts.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

AIDS 3rd revision

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or AIDS as we commonly know it, is a life threatening condition a person wouldn’t want to be caught into. It was discovered in the United States way back in 1981.   Since then, it has been a major problem of the world.Until now, there is no known cure for AIDS, a very alarming fact because anyone could get infected. AIDS is caused by a virus know to kill or damage cells of the body’s immune system.That virus is what we commonly know as HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). Because of its destructive behavior against the cells of the immune system, HIV disables the body’s capability to fight infections and cancer causing agents.When a person has AIDS, he or she is prone to getting life-threatening ailments because their bodies cannot fight the build-up of infections (â€Å"Women, Children and HIV†, 2006).Reports show that dating back to 1981, there has been more than a million cases of AIDS recorded. Statistics show that 2 5% of these people are unaware of the HIV infection. Because of this, they are likely to infect other people and transmit the virus (â€Å"HIV infections†, 2006).Symptoms of HIV InfectionIf not diagnosed early, HIV is hard to detect. Upon infection, you will not experience any symptoms. But it is possible to feel a flu-like ailment after 1-2 months of exposure to HIV. It could include fever, headache, enlarged lymph nodes and a certain feeling of tiredness.These symptoms are gone after one week to one month and are usually associated with other diseases. At this time, people can easily infect others, and the virus is greatly concentrated in the genital fluids. This is a very critical time for infecting other people because you don’t know that you have the disease.And when you have multiple sexual partners, it is likely to infect them with the virus. This is the period where you need to wear protection, in order not to infect others. The next set of symptoms may not sur face for 10 years or more after you first got infected with the virus. This is varying for some people.Some may experience these symptoms just after a few months while others may not and continue living normally for more than 10 years. This is known as the asymptomatic period.During the asymptomatic period,   the cells of the immune system are slowly being killed by the rapid multiplying and infecting of the virus.   Infected cells serve as hiding places of the HIV and lays there for some period of dormancy.The most evident outcome of the viral infection is a decrease in a component of the blood, the number of CD4 positive T cells drastically decreases. These cells are the immune system’s infection fighters. These cells are destroyed slowly without any symptoms. Because of this, the situation of the immune system gets worse, where various complications begin to surface.The primary signs of infection are swollen lymph nodes all over the body lasting for about three months. Other symptoms that occur before the onset of AIDS include lack of energy, weight loss, frequent fevers and sweats, rashes, flaky skin, memory loss and inflammation of the pelvis in women.   Others could develop sores in their mouth, sex organs or in their anus.Raising Doubts against AIDS and HIVNot everyone is convinced about the HIV/AIDS theory. The explanation was HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system and then matures into AIDS, thus further destroying the immune system until there is nothing left to destroy.Some researchers question the credibility of this theory on many accounts. One of them is Peter Duesberg, a professor at the University of California at Berkeley. He is concerns are on the field of virology and wrote about HIV/AIDS in 1987. As these issues continued to shock and amaze the world, Duesberg was unmoved.He accepts the fact that HIV is real, but poses no real harm on people, and that AIDS is caused by some other factors which are not infectious and cann ot be contacted to other people. There are also other people that rebuke the theory about HIV/AIDS. They are known as denialists by their enemies.These people include a group of medical scientists and researchers from Australia known as the Perth Group. They claim that nobody has yet discovered any proof for the existence of HIV, so there is basically no foundation on claims that HIV causes AIDS.Defining AIDS: What is and what is notAIDS doesn’t show specific symptoms. There is only a distinct characteristic of the human body when it has AIDS. It lacks a certain type of white blood cells, which is very important in order to live a healthy life. These white blood cells are the ones responsible in fighting infections off the body.Normal people usually have around 600 to 1,500 CD4+ Cells, or the helper T cells, per cubic millimeter of blood. People with AIDS have much lower levels of these helper T cells in their blood, causing immune deficiency, responsible for their vulnerabil ity to ailments.Way back in the 80’s, no one knows what really caused AIDS. They based their definition on the findings of one of 13 diseases of high rarity, which is connected to immune deficiency.As years passed, the definition was sharpened by thousands of similar occurrences that have been recorded, though sometimes it involves other ailments, but are related thru the same immune deficiency.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

20 Quick Tips for Better Time Management and More Free Time

20 Quick Tips for Better Time Management and More Free Time You’re banging your head against the desk trying to multitask, but you just don’t feel like it’s working. Here are 20 life hacks that can actually help drive up your productivity and help you get your incredibly efficient bottom out of the office and onto the beach where you belong. 1. Automate your life when possibleThe Internet is your friend. For almost any daily task or errand you can think of, there is probably an app or automated option that will not only save you time, but save you the hassle of having to do things you don’t enjoy (and save you dragging your feet). Set up autopay  on your accounts to pay your bills. Grocery shop online. Streamline your wardrobe to eliminate guess work. Spend the time you have doing things that excite you or that help you keep advancing.2. Cross tasks off your listIf you can complete a task in two minutes or less, do it immediately. Blast through these as soon as you notice them on your list. Remember: the longer y ou wait, the longer it will take.3. Don’t tax your brainYour ability to make clear decisions is not something you should take for granted. You can’t always rely on your clarity and willpower. It is possible for you to get exhausted and to overwhelm your faculties. Try making big decisions in the morning when you’re freshest. And if you aren’t feeling sharp, save your next decision for the following day when you’re back in your groove.4. Streamline your morning routineIf you listen to music when you’re getting ready in the morning, limit yourself to four songs max. Brush teeth, shower, dress, and do your finishing touches. One task per song. Then get out the door and get to work.5. Hide your temptationsOut of sight, out of mind. If you clear your worst distractions from your desk, it will be much easier for you not to get sidetracked by them.6. Don’t be â€Å"on call† all the timeTurn your phone on silent and return your calls w hen it’s convenient for you and fits into your workday- rather than immediately after getting each call. You can even save up a few to make all at one time, rather than bleeding out little bits of your day for each one.7. Follow the waitress ruleNever go anywhere empty handed. Something can always be tidied or sorted. Complete half of your smaller tasks just by spreading them out over the course of the normal back and forth of your day.8. Limit your personal email checkingThis can derail even the most concentrated concentrators in the work world. Try to limit yourself to checking your personal email just three times a day, rather than every three minutes.9. Schedule sleepYou don’t want your sleep schedule to be random. Set yourself a schedule and stick to it and this will help you keep your work hours from being random too.10. Use Self ControlNot just the lower case kind we’re all supposed to have, the productivity app. Limit your access to the websites that are the most distracting for you. You can set time limits for yourself to be your most productive.11. Practice what you preachIf you want to excel at something †¦ you have to work at it. Every day.12. Say noIf you don’t actually want to do something or to accept an invitation. You might piss off an acquaintance or two, but you’ll have a lot more time on your hands to work on things that matter.13. Keep a to-do listWrite tasks down and enjoy the thrill of crossing them off when completed. This way you’ll never forget a task and you’ll keep yourself honest about just how long you put certain things off.14. Go PomodoroGive the â€Å"Pomodoro† technique a try. There’s an app for it. 25 minutes on, 5 minutes off. Total dedication to your task in tiny increments. Watch and see what you can accomplish.15. Tackle the big stuffPick the meatiest, most important tasks on your to-do list and tackle those first. You’ll be more driven to work on these things and will free up space on your list for more things to get accomplished!16. MeditateSeriously. Just 10 (to as many as 60) minutes a day can make a huge difference over a period of months in your mental clarity and focus. Clear your mind every day and see what greatness you can manifest.17. MultitaskIf you’re a fan of podcasts or audiobooks, consume them when you’re otherwise occupied, but with tasks that don’t require a great deal of concentration. Exercising, commuting, cooking, etc. Triple what you can accomplish in a span of time.18. Don’t sit without a planEvery time you sit down at your desk or your computer, make sure you have a plan for what you intend to do while your butt is in that chair. Set an intention (even one as simple as â€Å"ten minutes on Facebook†). But make sure you stick to it. That way, when you sit down to do real work, you’ll honor your goal.19. Fold over tapeThis is a good and practical thing to do, an d perhaps also a metaphor for leaving projects in the middle. If you’re using a roll of tape, fold over the loose end before putting it away. It will save you time and energy when you need to use it again without having to find the seam.20. Plus oneWhenever you sit down to cross a task off your to-do list, add one. If every time you set out to accomplish one thing, you actually knock through two things, imagine what you can get done throughout your whole career.

Monday, October 21, 2019

How to Celebrate Valentines Day as a Homeschool Family

How to Celebrate Valentines Day as a Homeschool Family For kids in a traditional school setting, Valentines Day may conjure up ideas of exchanging Valentines and feasting on cupcakes with classmates. How can you make Valentines Day special as a homeschooling family? Host a Valentine Party A child making the  transition from public school to homeschool  may be accustomed to a traditional classroom party. Consider hosting your own Valentines Day party for your family and friends or homeschool support group. One of the obstacles that you may experience with a homeschool Valentine party is getting a list of participants names. In a classroom setting, a list of names if usually sent home to make it easy for kids to address a Valentine card to each of their classmates. Also, unlike in a classroom, all the kids in a homeschool support group may not know one another. There are a couple of easy ways to overcome these obstacles. First, you may want to ask all the party-goers to bring blank Valentine cards to exchange. They can fill in the names as part of the activities after they arrived. For larger homeschool group parties, its helpful to ask the children to fill out their Valentines at home, writing â€Å"my friend† in the â€Å"to† field.   Ask each child to bring a shoebox or a paper sack to decorate. Choose one or the other so that all the kids have something similar in which to collect their Valentines. Provide markers; stamps and ink; crayons; and stickers for the kids to use in decorating their boxes.  After decorating their bags or boxes, have the children deliver their Valentines to one another. You will also want to provide snacks or ask each family to bring something to share. Group games are fun to plan, too, since those are difficult to play at home with siblings.   Have a Valentine-themed School Day Take a break from your regular schoolwork for the day.  Instead, complete Valentine’s Day printables,  writing prompts, and writing activities. Read Valentine’s Day or love-themed picture books. Learn how to dry flowers  or make Valentine’s Day crafts. Get hands-on with math and kitchen chemistry by baking cookies or cupcakes. If you have an older student, give him home ec credit for preparing a complete Valentine-themed meal. Serve Others A fantastic way to celebrate Valentine’s Day as a homeschool family is to spend time serving others. Look for opportunities to volunteer in your community or consider the following: Take Valentine  cards and treats to a nursing home,  police station, or fire departmentRake leaves for a neighborDeliver a homemade meal or Valentine treats to a neighborTake treats to the librarians who probably know your family by nameDo random acts of kindness, such as paying for the meal of the car behind you in the drive-through lineServe your own family by doing household chores that someone else usually does such as washing the dishes for Mom or taking out the trash for Dad Place Hearts on Each Other’s Bedroom  Doors Place a heart on each family member’s bedroom door listing a reason why you love them. You might mention attributes such as: You are kind.You have a beautiful smile.You’re great at drawing.You are a wonderful sister.I love your sense of humor.You give fantastic hugs. Do this every day for the month of February, the week of Valentine’s Day, or surprise your family with an explosion of hearts on their doors when they wake up on Valentine’s Day. Enjoy a Special Breakfast Like other families, it’s not uncommon for  homeschooling families  to find themselves going in different directions each day.  One or both parents may work outside the home, and the kids may have a homeschool co-op or outside classes to attend. Enjoy a special Valentine’s Day breakfast before everyone goes their separate ways. Make heart-shaped pancakes or have strawberries and chocolate crepes.   End the Day Together If you dont have time for breakfast, end the day with some special family time. Order pizza and snuggle up for a family movie night complete with popcorn and boxes of movie candy. Before the movie, encourage each family member to tell the others one thing they love about each of them.   Your homeschool familys Valentines day celebration doesnt have to be elaborate to be a meaningful, memory-making event.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Experts Guide to the AP Literature Exam

Expert's Guide to the AP Literature Exam SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you're planning to take theAP English Literature and Composition exam, you'll need to get familiar with what to expect from the test. Whether the 2019 test date ofWednesday, May 8 is near or far,I’m here to help you get serious about preparing for the exam. In this guide I’ll go over the test's format and question types, howit's graded, best practices for preparation, and test day tips. You’ll be on your way to AP English Lit success in no time! AP English Literature: Exam Format and Question Types The AP Literature Exam is a three-hour exam that contains two sections. First is an hour-long, 55-question multiple choice section, and then a two hour, three question free-response section. The exam tests your ability to analyze works and excerpts of literature and also cogently communicate that analysis in essay form. Read on for a breakdown of the two different sections and their question types. Multiple Choice Section The multiple-choice section, or Section I of the exam, is 60 minutes long and has 55 questions. You can expect to see 4-5 excerpts of prose and poetry. You will, in general, not be given an author, date, or title for these works, although occasionally the title of a poem is given. Unusual words are also sometimes defined for you. The date ranges of works could fall from the 16th to the 21st century. Most works will be originally written in English, although you may occasionally see a passage in translation. There are, generally speaking, eight kinds of questions you can expect to see on the AP English Literature and Composition test. I’ll break each of themdown here and give you tips on how to identify and approach them. "Tiny books carried by ladies" is not one of the question types. The 8 Multiple-Choice Question Types on the AP Literature Exam Without further ado, here are the eight question types you can expect to see on the AP lit exam. All questions are taken from the sample questions on the â€Å"AP Course and Exam Description.† Reading Comprehension These are questions that test your ability to understand what the passage is saying on a pretty basic level. They don’t require you to do a lot of interpretation- you just need to know what is actually going on. You can identify these from words and phrases like â€Å"according to,† â€Å"asserting,† â€Å"mentioned,† and so on. Basically, words that point to a fairly concrete register of meaning. You can succeed on these questions by careful reading of the text. You may have to go back and re-read parts to make sure you understand what the passage is saying. Example: Inference These questions ask you to infer something- a character or narrator’s opinion, an author’s intention, and so forth- based on what is said in the passage. It will be something that isn’t stated directly or concretely, but that you can assume based on what is stated clearly in the passage. You can identify these questions from words like â€Å"infer,† and â€Å"imply.† The key to these questions is to not be tripped up by the fact that you are making an inference- there will be a best answer, and it will be the choice that is best supported by what is actually found in the passage. In many ways, inference questions are like second-level reading comprehension questions- you need to know not just what a passage says, but what it means. Example: Identifying and Interpreting Figurative Language These are questions in which you have to either identify what word or phrase is figurative language or provide the meaning of a figurative phrase. You can identify these as they will either explicitly mention figurative language (or a figurative device like simile or metaphor) or will include a figurative language phrase in the question itself. The meaning of figurative language phrases can normally be determined by the phrase’s context in the passage- what is said around it? What is the phrase referring to? Example 1: Identifying Example 2: Interpreting Literary Technique These questions involve identifying why an author does what they do: from using a particular phrase to repeating certain words. Basically, what techniques is the author using to construct the passage/poem and to what effect? You can identify these questions bywordslike â€Å"serves chiefly to,† â€Å"effect,† â€Å"evoke,† and â€Å"in order to.† A good way to approach these questions is to ask yourself, so what? Why did the author use these particular words or this particular structure? Example: Character Analysis These questions will ask you to describe something about a character. You can spot them because they will refer directly to characters’ attitudes, opinions, beliefs, or relationships with other characters. This is, in many ways, a special kind of inference question since you are inferring the broader personality of the character based on the evidence in a passage. Also, these crop up much more commonly for prose passages than poetry ones. Example: Overall Passage Questions Some questions will ask you to identify or describe something about the passage/poem as a whole: its purpose, tone, genre, etc. You can identify these byphrases like â€Å"in the passage,† and â€Å"as a whole.† To answer these questions, you need to think about the excerpt with a bird’s-eye view. What is the overall picture created by all the tiny details? Example: Structure Some questions will ask you about specific structural elements of the passage- a shift in tone, a digression, the specific form of a poem, etc.Often these questions will specify a part of the passage/poem and ask you to identify what that part is accomplishing. Being able to identify and understand the significance of any shifts- structural, tonal, in genre, etc- will be of key importance for these questions. Example: Grammar/Nuts Bolts Very occasionally you will be asked a specific grammar question, such as what word an adjective is modifying. I would also include in this category very specific questions like the meter of a poem (i.e. iambic pentameter). These questions are less about the literary artistry and more about the fairly dry technique involved in having a fluent command of the English language. Example: That covers the 8 question types! Keep track of these. The AP Literature Free-Response Section Section II of the exam is two hours long and involves three free-response essay questions- so you'll have roughly 40 minutes per essay. Note, though, that no one will prompt you to move from essay to essay, so you can theoretically divide up the time how you want (but be sure to leave enough time for each essay). The first two essays are literary analysis essays of specific passages, with one poem and one prose excerpt- and the final is an analysis of a given theme in a work selected by you, the student. Essays One and Two - Literary Passage Analysis For the first two essays, you’ll be presented with an excerpt and directed to analyze the excerpt for a given theme, device, or development.One of the passages will be poetry, and one will be prose.You will be provided with the author of the work, the approximate date, and some orienting information (i.e. the plot context of an excerpt fromanovel). Sample Questions (from 20 Free Response Questions) Poetry: Prose: Essay Three - Thematic Analysis For the third and final essay, you’ll be asked to discuss a particular theme in a work that you select.You will be provided with a list of notable works that address the given theme below the prompt, but you can also choose to discuss any â€Å"work of literary merit.† So you DO have the power to choose which work you wish to write an essay about, but the key word here is â€Å"literary merit.† So no genre fiction! Stick to safe bets like authors in the list on pages 10- of the Course and Exam Description. (I know, I know- lots of ‘genre’ fiction works DO have literary merit, and Shakespeare actually began as low culture, and so on and so forth. You may well find academic designations of â€Å"literary merit† elitist and problematic, but the time to rage against the literary establishment is not your AP lit test.) Here’s a sample question (from 20): As you can see, the list of works provided spans many different time periods and countries:there are ancient Greek plays (Antigone), modern literary works (like Margaret Atwood’s The Blind Assassin or Barbara Kingsolver’s The Poisonwood Bible), Shakespeare plays (The Merchant of Venice), 19th-century Russian lit (Crime and Punishment), and so on. You might even see something by this guy. How Is the AP Literature Test Graded? The multiple-choice section of the exam comprises 45% of your exam score. The three essays comprise the other 55%. Each essay, then, is worth about 18%. As on other AP exams, your raw score will be converted to a score from 1-5. You don’t have to get every point possible to get a 5 by any means- but the AP English Literature test does have one of the lowest 5 rates of all APs, with only 5.6% of students receiving 5s in 2018. But how do you get raw scores at all? Multiple-Choice Scoring For the multiple-choice section, you receive a point for each question you answer correctly. There is no guessing penalty, so you should answer every question- but guess only after eliminating any answer that you know is wrong to up your chances of choosingthe correct one. Free-Response Scoring Scoring for multiple choice is pretty straightforward. However, essay scoring is a little more complicated. Each of your essays will receive a score from 0-9 based on the College Board rubric. You can actually find question-specific rubrics for all of the released free-response questions for AP English lit (see â€Å"scoring guidelines†). While all of the rubrics are broadly similar, there are some minor differences between each of them. I’ll go over the rubrics now- both what they say and what they mean for you. Poetry Passage Analysis Rubric Score What the College Board Says What it Means 9-8 These essays persuasively address the assigned task. These essays offer a range of interpretations; they provide a convincing reading and analysis of the poem. They demonstrate consistent and effective control over the elements of composition appropriate to the analysis of poetry. Their textual references are apt and specific. Though they may not be error-free, these essays are perceptive in their analysis and demonstrate writing that is clear and sophisticated, and in the case of a 9 essay, especially persuasive. Your argument is convincing and it addresses all elements of the prompt. You interpret the language of the poem in a variety of ways (i.e. your analysis of the poem is thorough). Your essay is particularly well-written and well-organized. You appropriately reference specific moments in the poem to support your argument. A 9 essay is particularly persuasive. 7-6 These essays reasonably address the assigned task. They are less thorough or less precise in the way they address the task, and their analysis is less convincing. These essays demonstrate an ability to express ideas clearly, making references to the text, although they do not exhibit the same level of effective writing as the 9-8 papers. Essays scored a 7 present better-developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. You address all elements of the prompt, but your analysis is not as complete or convincing as a 9-8 essay. You do make specific references to the poem and your writing is clear and effective, but not necessarily masterful. 5 These essays respond plausibly to the assigned task, but they tend to be superficial in their analysis. They often rely on paraphrase, which may contain some analysis, implicit or explicit. Their analysis may be vague, formulaic, or minimally supported by references to the text. There may be minor misinterpretations of the poem. These essays demonstrate some control of language, but they may be marred by surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7-6 essays. You answer the prompt in a way that is not implausible or unreasonable, but your analysis of the poem is surface-level. You may paraphrase the poem instead of making specific references to its language. You may not adequately support your analysis of the poem, or you may misinterpret it slightly. Your essay is not a total mess, but not necessarily particularly well-organized or argued. 4-3 These lower-half essays fail to offer an adequate analysis of the poem. The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant, or ignore part of the assigned task. Evidence from the poem may be slight or misconstrued, or the essays may rely on paraphrase only. The essays often demonstrate a lack of control over the conventions of composition: inadequate development of ideas, accumulation of errors, or a focus that is unclear, inconsistent, or repetitive. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading, demonstrate inept writing, or do both. You do not adequately address the prompt. Your analysis of the poem is incomplete or incorrect, or you do not reference any specific language of the poem. Your essay is undeveloped, unclear, or poorly organized. A 3 essay either significantly misinterprets the poem or is particularly poorly written. 2-1 These essays compound the weaknesses of the papers in the 4–3 range. Although some attempt has been made to respond to the prompt, the student’s assertions are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the poem. These essays may contain serious errors in grammar and mechanics. They may offer a complete misreading or be unacceptably brief. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the poem. Only minimal attempt is made to respond to the prompt. Essay is disorganized or not supported by evidence from the poem. May contain numerous grammar and mechanics errors. May completely misinterpret the poem or be too short. A 1 essay barely mentions the poem. 0 These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is made to respond to the prompt. - These essays are entirely blank You didn’t write anything! Prose Passage Analysis Rubric Score What the College Board Says What it Means 9-8 These essays persuasively address the assigned task. These essays make a strong case for the student’s interpretation. They may consider a variety of literary devices, and they engage the text through apt and specific references. Although these essays may not be error-free, their perceptive analysis is apparent in writing that is clear and effectively organized. Essays scored a 9 reveal more sophisticated analysis and more effective control of language than do essays scored an 8. Your argument is convincing and addresses all parts of the prompt. You discuss a number of literary devices in your analysis and use specific and appropriate excerpts from the text as evidence in your argument. Your writing is clear, focused, and well-organized. A 9 essay has a particularly well-developed interpretation of the text and is better-written than an 8. 7-6 These essays reasonably address the task at hand. The writers provide a sustained, competent reading of the passage, with attention to a variety of literary devices. Although these essays may not be error-free and are less perceptive or less convincing than 9–8 essays, they present ideas with clarity and control and refer to the text for support. Essays scored a 7 present better developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. You address all elements of the prompt. Your interpretation is coherent and you reference multiple literary devices in your analysis. You do reference specific moments in the text for support. Your essay is adequately organized and focused. However, your argument may be less convincing or insightful (i.e. more obvious) than a 9-8 essay. 5 These essays respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading of the passage but tend to be superficial or thin. While containing some analysis of the passage, implicit or explicit, the way the assigned task is addressed may be slight, and support from the passage may tend toward summary or paraphrase. While these essays demonstrate adequate control of language, they may be marred by surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7–6 essays. You address the prompt, but your argument may be surface-level. You rely too much on summary or paraphrase of the text in your argument instead of using specific moments in the text. Your essay does have some elements of organization and focus but has some distracting errors. 4-3 These lower-half essays fail to offer an adequate analysis of the passage. The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant; the writers may ignore part of the assigned task. These essays may be characterized by an unfocused or repetitive presentation of ideas, an absence of textual support, or an accumulation of errors. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading, demonstrate inept writing, or do both. You do not adequately address the prompt, whether because your argument is partly unrelated to the task at hand or simply ignores elements of the prompt. Your essay is poorly focused and/or repetitive and has little textual support. A 3 essay significantly misinterprets the passage and/or is very poorly written. 2-1 These essays compound the weaknesses of the essays in the 4–3 score range. They may feature persistent misreading of the passage or be unacceptably brief. They may contain pervasive errors that interfere with understanding. Although some attempt has been made to respond to the prompt, the student’s ideas are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the passage. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the passage. Essay does not adequately address the assigned task. It may be very short or repeatedly misinterpret the passage. May be poorly written enough that it is hard to understand. These essays may be unfocused, unclear, or disorganized. 0 These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is made to respond to the prompt. - These essays are entirely blank You didn’t write anything! Student Choice Rubric Score What the College Board Says What it Means 9-8 These essays offer a well-focused and persuasive analysis of the assigned theme and how it relates to the work as a whole. Using apt and specific textual support, these essays address all parts of the prompt. Although these essays may not be error-free, they make a strong case for their interpretation and discuss the literary work with significant insight and understanding. Essays scored a 9 reveal more sophisticated analysis and more effective control of language than do essays scored 8. Your essay convincingly addresses the task in a way that is clear and focused. You reference many specific moments in the text in support of your argument. You build a strong case- with lots of evidence- in support of your interpretation of the text. Your argument shows a deep understanding of the text. A 9 essay has more complex analysis and is better-written than an 8. 7-6 These essays offer a reasonable analysis of the work of the assigned theme and how it relates to the work as a whole. These essays address all parts of the prompt. While these essays show insight and understanding, their analysis is less thorough, less perceptive, and/or less specific in supporting detail than that of the 9–8 essays. Essays scored a 7 present better developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. Your essay addresses the task adequately. Your interpretation of the text is apt and shows that you generally understood it, although your analysis may be more conventional or include less specific textual evidence than a 9-8 essay. 5 These essays respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading, but they tend to be superficial or thinly developed in analysis. They often rely upon plot summary that contains some analysis, implicit or explicit. Although these essays display an attempt to address the prompt, they may demonstrate a rather simplistic understanding and support from the text may be too general. While these essays demonstrate adequate control of language, they may be marred by surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7–6 essays. Your essay addresses the prompt, but your argument may be very basic and/or rely too much on plot summary instead of true analysis of the text. Your essay may reveal that you do not thoroughly understand the text. Your essay may have some grammar/linguistic errors. Your essay is not especially well-organized or focused. 4-3 These lower-half essays fail to adequately address the assigned task. The analysis may be partial, unsupported, or irrelevant, and the essays may reflect an incomplete or oversimplified understanding of how a given theme functions in the text, or they may rely on plot summary alone. These essays may be characterized by an unfocused or repetitive presentation of ideas, an absence of textual support, or an accumulation of errors; they may lack control over the elements of college-level composition. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading and/or demonstrate inept writing. Your essay does not address the prompt. Your analysis shows that you either do not understand how to address the prompt, cannot build support for your interpretation, or do not understand the text. Your essay may be poorly organized, poorly written and/or repetitive. A 3 essay significantly misinterprets the chosen work and/or is very poorly written. 2-1 Although these essays make some attempt to respond to the prompt, they compound the weaknesses of the papers in the 4–3 score range. Often, they are unacceptably brief or incoherent in presenting their ideas. They may be poorly written on several counts and contain distracting errors in grammar and mechanics. Remarks may be presented with little clarity, organization, or supporting evidence. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the text. Your essay does not address the prompt. It may be too short or make little sense. These essays may be unfocused, poorly organized, completely unsupported, and/or riddled with grammatical errors 0 These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is made to respond to the prompt. - These essays are entirely blank You didn’t write anything! As you can see, the rubric for the poetry essay is focused more on poetic devices, and the rubric for the prose essay is focused more on literary devices and techniques. Both of those essays are very specifically focused on the analysis of the poem/prose excerpt. By contrast, the student choice essay is focused onhow your analysis fits into the work as a whole. To get a high-scoring essay in the 9-8 range, you need to not only come up with an original and intriguing argument that you thoroughly support with textual evidence, your essay needs to be focused, organized, clear, and well-written. And all in 40 minutes peressay! If getting a high score sounds like a tall order, that’s because it is. The mean scores on each of the essays last year was around a 4 out of 9. That means, most essays were scored lower than a 5. So even getting a 7 on these essays is an accomplishment. If you write it down, it must be true! Skill-Building for Success on the AP Literature Exam There are several things you can do to hone your skills and best prepare for the AP Litexam. Read Some Books, Maybe More Than Once One of the most important things you can do to prepare yourself for the AP Literature and Composition exam is to read a lot, and read well. You’ll be reading a wide variety of notable literary works in your AP English Literature course, but additional reading will help you further develop your analytical reading skills. You might check out the College Board’s list of â€Å"notable authors† on pages 10- of the â€Å"Course and Exam Description.† In addition to reading broadly, you’ll want to become especially familiar with the details of 4-5 books with different themes so that you’ll be sure to be prepared to write a strong student choice essay. You should know the plot, themes, characters, and structural details of these 4-5 books inside and out. See my AP English Literature Reading List for more guidance. Read (and Interpret) Poetry One thing students may not do very much on their own time, but that will help a lot with exam prep, is to read poetry. Try to read poems from a lot of eras and authors to get familiar with the language. When you think you have a grip on basic comprehension, move on to close-reading (see below). Hone Your Close Reading and Analysis Skills Your AP class will likely focus heavily on close reading and analysis of prose and poetry, but extra practice won’t hurt you. Close-reading is the ability to identify which techniques the author is using and why they are using them. You’ll need to be able to do this both to gather evidence for original arguments on the free-response questions and to answer analytical multiple-choice questions. Here are some helpful close-reading resources for prose: The University of Wisconsin-Madison’s writing center has a guide to close-reading. You can also check out this close-reading guide from the Harvard College Writing Center. The Purdue OWL has an article on steering clear of close-reading â€Å"pitfalls.† And here are some for poetry: The University of Wisconsin-Madison also has a poetry-reading guide. There’s also an excellent guide to reading poetry at Poets.org, complete with two poetry close-readings. Learn Literary and Poetic Devices You’ll want to be familiar with literary terms so that any questions that ask about them will make sense to you. Again, you’ll probably learn most of these in class, but it doesn’t hurt to brush up on them. Here are some comprehensive lists of literary terms with definitions: About.com Literary Glossary Literary-Devices.Com list, which even has examples! Practice Writing Essays The majority of your grade on the AP English Lit exam comes from essays, so it’s critical that you practice your timed essay-writing skills. You of course should use the College Board’s released free-response questions to practice writing complete timed essays of each type, but you can also practice quickly outlining thorough essays that are well-supported with textual evidence. Take Practice Tests Taking practice tests is a great way to prepare for the exam. It will help you get familiar with the exam format and experience. You can get sample questions from the Course and Exam Description, there are released College Board exams here, and we have a complete article on AP English Lit practice test resources. Be aware that the released exams don’t have complete slates of free-response questions, so you may need to supplement with released free-response questions (see link in above section). Since there are two complete released exams, you can take one towards the beginning of your prep time to get familiar with the exam and set a benchmark, and one towards the end to make sure the experience is fresh in your mind and to check your progress. Don't wander like a lonely cloud through your AP lit prep. AP Literature Test Day Tips Here are my top six tips for taking the exam: #1: On the multiple-choice section, it’s to your advantage to answer every question. If you eliminate all of the answers you know are wrong before guessing, you’ll up your chances of guessing the correct one. #2: Don’t rely on your memory of the passage when answering multiple-choice questions (or for writing essays, for that matter). Look back at the passage! #3: Interact with the text- circle, mark, underline, make notes, whatever floats your boat. This will help you retain information and actively engage with the passage. #4: This was mentioned above, but it’s critical that you know 4-5 books well for the student choice essay. You’ll want to know all the characters, the plot, the themes, and any major devices or motifs the author uses throughout. #5: Be sure to plan out your essays! Organization and focus are critical for high-scoring AP Literature essays. #6: Manage your time on essays closely. One strategy is to start with the essay you think will be the easiest to answer. This way you’ll be able to get through it while thinking about the other essays. And don't forget to eat breakfast! Apron optional. Key Takeaways The AP Literature exam is a three-hour exam: It includes one 55-question, hour-long multiple-choice section based on four-five prose and poetry passages, and a two hour free-response section with three essays- one analyzing a poetry passage, one analyzing a prose passage, and one analyzing a work chosen by the student. The multiple-choice section is worth 45% of your total score and the free-response section is worth 55%. Essays are scored on a rubric from 0-9. Raw scores are converted to a score from 1-5. Here are some things you can do to prepare for the exam: Read books, and be particularly familiar with 4-5 works for the student-choice essays Read poetry Work on your close-reading and analysis skills Learn literary devices Practice writing essays Take practice tests! On test day, be sure to really look closely at all of the passages and closely interact with them by marking the text in a way that makes sense to you. This will help on multiple-choice questions and the free-response essays. Be sure also to outline your essays before you write them! With all this mind, you’re well on your way to AP Lit success! What's Next? If you're taking other AP exams this year, you may be interested in our other AP resources: from the Ultimate Guide to the US History Exam,to the Best 2016 Review Guide for AP Chemistry, to the Best AP Psychology Study Guide, we have articles on tons of AP courses and exams. Looking for practice exams? Here are some tips on how to find the best AP practice tests. We also have comprehensive lists of practice tests for AP Psychology, AP Biology, AP Chemistry, and AP US History. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Alternate Work Arrangements Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Alternate Work Arrangements - Essay Example Some of the possible negative outcomes for employers and/or employees related to alternative work arrangements include the challenges related to the appropriate functioning of such programs for employers as well as employees, dealing with issues related to the training of employees, supervision of work, and evaluation of employees’ performance. Besides, it becomes more difficult for the employees to maintain effective coordination with peers and bosses in such a work arrangement. In addition, some managers find it hard to adjust to such unusual working arrangements, and thus their efficiency and productivity might be negatively affected by them. What types of factors are influencing organizations to consider using alternative work arrangements? Explain how alternative work arrangements can address the problems/issues that are raised by these factors. There are three major factors that are influencing organizations to consider using alternative work arrangements, namely workers’ needs, expectations, and desires for greater flexibility in the workplace; fuel consumption and fuel costs related to commuting, and the impact of carbon footprint related to it; and the restrictive impact caused by the financial global crisis on the job opportunities. In the present age, when cost of living has increased tremendously, people not only need to have multiple sources of income in order to be able to make a living, but also need to acquire new skills and competences so that they become eligible for more opportunities. This places a need before them to pay due attention to academia as well as industry. In addition to that, people also have to take care of their families, and there are so many other commitments. All of these factors make alternative work arrangements a more convenient option for a vast majority of employees. Alternative work arrangements can address the problems posed by these factors by increasing the rate of employee retention,

Friday, October 18, 2019

Managment Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Managment - Assignment Example Some consider developing of stringent policies and regulation in solving of the problem which has been taking place for over one year. The problem statement will be helpful to the improvement team in defining the problem, thereby identifying the root cause. The point at which the 80% line intersects the cumulative percentage curve is the plotted on the x-axis, separates the fundamental causes to the left, and the less prominent causes to the right. Under operational flaws, the PT tools should concentrate on; activation switch malfunction, non functional electric system and mounting plate located off-center. The only less salient cause is motor failure. Under finish flaws, scratches and dents are fundamental causes while, surface finishing disfiguration in paint, damage to the casing and wrong color are less salient causes. Using Cost analysis, the activation switch malfunction, becomes an indispensable cause under operational flaws. The finish flaws principal cause will increase with the addition of damage to the casing being a significant cause. The inclusion of cost increases the number of fundamental causes due to increase in the cost of repair which increase the cumulative percentage of the causes. The activation switch malfunction becomes an essential issue because of the volumes and prices of failure resulting from it. Therefore, the increases in cumulative percentage of total cost of repairs are a result of increase in causes effect on the quality. Why-why diagrams are useful in the identification of problems that lead to failure. In the mail order problem, delay can be cause by the order message deliverer or problems with in the organizational systems which can be identified and resolved. It was developed by Karoru Isakawa with four main categories covering man power, ways or methods, materials and machinery if targeting manufacturing or policies, equipment, procedures and people in the case of Administration and service

Ethic and Morality in Religion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Ethic and Morality in Religion - Essay Example Thus, it strives for all humanity without discrimination. The philosophers and thinkers are of the opinion that the popularity and validity of a religion can be assessed, estimated and measured by the noble teachings of its pioneers in respect of betterment and welfare of the individuals. No religion allows exercise of any kind of butcheries, atrocities and cruelties in the name of faith and religion. On the contrary, the concept of religion has close association with humanity, sacrifice, ethics and moral values.   Ã‚  Ã‚   The founders, preachers and pioneers of every religion have looked for the implication and observation of moral values as one of the most essential elements of the basic teachings of their faith. Though religious cults and practices vary among the followers of different religions, and there are some similarities too, yet the most common thing among all the faiths includes their emphasis on ethical principles and moral values. Ethics and morality refer to the rules and regulations, based on the principles of charity, kindness, love, respect and goodness, which everyone is bound to observe in his behavior. The basic motive behind every religion has always been the welfare of the people, which can be witnessed by analyzing the words, teachings and scriptures of the founders of the great religions.   Ã‚   Like other religious beliefs, Christianity has also defined morality as the essence of their traditional faith. The Christians consider Holy Christ as the founder of Christianity.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

With reference to motivation theory, discuss the psychological Essay - 1

With reference to motivation theory, discuss the psychological foundations of pay - Essay Example The intellectuals mentioned above have offered their theories from the perspective of their respective fields/disciplines. For example, Maslow, McGregor, Alderfer, McClelland have emphasized the physiological basis of employee motivation, whereas scientists such as Locke, Vroom, Kelly and Tolman have presented the cognitive basis of motivation. Social/behaviourist theories of motivation comprise the third school of thought, where seminal contributions were made by Pavlov, Taylor, Thorndike, Skinner, etc. An understanding of psychological motivations of pay is achieved by gleaning relevant points from these three schools of thought. The behaviourist theory lays emphasis on the â€Å"effect of learning and reinforcement, and as a result the behaviourist theory of motivation is closely connected to the psychological theories of learning and reinforcement.† (Hume, 1995) Abraham H. Maslow’s ground breaking thesis the Hierarchy of Needs gives insight into human motivation (in the workplace or elsewhere). He notes that â€Å"all individuals have a set of human needs which are prioritized on an ascending scale, primary needs dealing with physiology and safety, and secondary needs dealing with the psychological aspects of human existence, etc. These needs in ascending order are: physiological, safety, social/love, esteem, and self actualization.† (Hume, 1995) Firstly, pay helps satisfy primary needs of physiological needs of safety and security by allowing for housing, clothing expenditures. Secondly, it satisfies the social/psychological need by bestowing a social status to the individual. Though this secondary need is subjective and less tangible, it is a powerful source of motivation nevertheless. Coming to the Cognitive theories of motivation, the most important contribution comes from American psychologist Edward C. Tolman, who articulated his Expectancy Theory of Motivation. Here, he suggests that â€Å"that the behaviour of individuals is not

Operatios Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Operatios Management - Essay Example The author has presented his idea and has used different sources and reliable sources for this journal article in order to improve the information presented. Forecasting techniques can be improved and this can allow the businesses to improve their overall supply chain planning and control. The findings of this article are very much the same as of the other authors as they have also emphasized on collaborating with other players in the supply chain. Ramanathan is working in the department of Business Systems in the Bedfordshire Business School and has sufficient knowledge of business and he has used different books and research papers thus, the knowledge and information presented in the article is reliable. Article 2: Moyano-Fuentes, J., Sacristan-Diaz, M., & Martinez-Jurado, P. J. (2012). Cooperation in the supply chain and lean production adoption: Evidence from the Spanish automotive industry.  International Journal of Operations & Production Management,  vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 10 75-1096. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17048068 Journal: International Journal of Operations & Production Management Lean production is important in managing the overall supply chain in business. ... The article discusses about the evidences from the Spanish automotive industry. This article has been written by three different authors, Jose? Moyano-Fuentes, Macarena Sacrista?n-Daz and Pedro Jose? Martnez-Jurado. All these three authors work in different universities in Spain and therefore these authors have the knowledge regarding supply chain, business and operations management. Moreover, with different research studies cited by these authors, the information presented is highly reliable. Article 3: Wee, H., and Wu, S. (2009). Lean supply chain and its effect on product cost and quality: a case study on Ford Motor Company. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 335 – 341 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1810704&show=abstract Journal: Supply Chain Management: an International Journal The other article that has been used for this research study is on the company, Ford Motors. The article analyzes the lean supply chain of t he company and how this system has helped the company in improving the cost and quality of Ford Motors. The findings of the article have revealed that by implementing lean supply chain, the company has been able to reduce its cost, enhance its quality and reduce its lean time. The article also presents recommendation for the company. Wee is one of the authors of the article and he is working at Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering in a university in Taiwan, Chung Yuan Christian University. The other author is Simon Wu and he is not only working in the Chung Yuan Christian University but he is also involved with the ford motors in the Ford Production System Manufacturing Division. Thus this

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

With reference to motivation theory, discuss the psychological Essay - 1

With reference to motivation theory, discuss the psychological foundations of pay - Essay Example The intellectuals mentioned above have offered their theories from the perspective of their respective fields/disciplines. For example, Maslow, McGregor, Alderfer, McClelland have emphasized the physiological basis of employee motivation, whereas scientists such as Locke, Vroom, Kelly and Tolman have presented the cognitive basis of motivation. Social/behaviourist theories of motivation comprise the third school of thought, where seminal contributions were made by Pavlov, Taylor, Thorndike, Skinner, etc. An understanding of psychological motivations of pay is achieved by gleaning relevant points from these three schools of thought. The behaviourist theory lays emphasis on the â€Å"effect of learning and reinforcement, and as a result the behaviourist theory of motivation is closely connected to the psychological theories of learning and reinforcement.† (Hume, 1995) Abraham H. Maslow’s ground breaking thesis the Hierarchy of Needs gives insight into human motivation (in the workplace or elsewhere). He notes that â€Å"all individuals have a set of human needs which are prioritized on an ascending scale, primary needs dealing with physiology and safety, and secondary needs dealing with the psychological aspects of human existence, etc. These needs in ascending order are: physiological, safety, social/love, esteem, and self actualization.† (Hume, 1995) Firstly, pay helps satisfy primary needs of physiological needs of safety and security by allowing for housing, clothing expenditures. Secondly, it satisfies the social/psychological need by bestowing a social status to the individual. Though this secondary need is subjective and less tangible, it is a powerful source of motivation nevertheless. Coming to the Cognitive theories of motivation, the most important contribution comes from American psychologist Edward C. Tolman, who articulated his Expectancy Theory of Motivation. Here, he suggests that â€Å"that the behaviour of individuals is not

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

The Internet and International Communication Essay

The Internet and International Communication - Essay Example Digital divide is also a barrier, in which internet inaccessibility poses a problem in convergence. Network convergence works on the basis of information flow for the purpose of decreasing the variance among the views and beliefs of the participants involved. Among a nation, these participants are the nation-states or ethnic groups. â€Å"†¦variance between groups or national cultures would become smaller over time as a result of international communication† (Barnett & Kincaid, as cited in author_last_name, p.159). When information flow is efficient and repetitive, network convergence will be able to unite the participants, and as a result, all the participants will achieve the same national identity due to decreased or even diminished variance among them. Yes, I believe so because universal culture will promote a universal set of accepted beliefs, values and standards. This will lead to lower variance and difference of opinions and perspectives among people of all nations. People will start accepting each other, and no one will consider the other persona as an

Monday, October 14, 2019

Research Essay Example for Free

Research Essay 1. Dadaism- was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century. Many claim Dada began in Zurich, Switzerland in 1916, spreading to Berlin shortly thereafter but the height of New York Dada was the year before in 1915. To quote Dona Budds The Language of Art Knowledge. Dada was born out of negative reaction to the horrors of World War I. This international movement was begun by a group of artist and poets associated with the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. Dada rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense, irrationality and intuition. The origin of the name Dada is unclear; some believe that it is a nonsensical word. Others maintain that it originates from the Romanian artists Tristan Tzaras and Marcel Jancos frequent use of the words da, da, meaning yes, yes in the Romanian language. Another theory says that the name Dada came during a meeting of the group when a paper knife stuck into a French-German dictionary happened to point to dada, a French word for hobbyhorse. 2. Cubism- is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, joined by Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand LÃ ©ger and Juan Gris that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century. The term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris (Montmartre, Montparnasse and Puteaux) during the 1910s and extending through the 1920s. Variants such as Futurism and Constructivism developed in other countries. A primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of three-dimensional form in the late works of Paul CÃ ©zanne, which were displayed in a retrospective at the 1907 Salon dAutomne. In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. 3. Impressionism- is a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists. Their independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s, in spite of harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France. The name of the style derives from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, soleil levant(Impression, Sunrise), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satirical review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari. Impressionist painting characteristics include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles. The development of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media that became know n as impressionist music and impressionist literature. 4. Expressionism- was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. Expressionist artists sought to express meaning or emotional experience rather than physical reality. Expressionism was developed as an avant-garde style before the First World War. It remained popular during the Weimar Republic, particularly in Berlin. The style extended to a wide range of the arts, including painting, literature, theatre, dance, film, architecture and music.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Work of clifford geertz in history

Work of clifford geertz in history What Does The Work Of Clifford Geertz Have To Offer Research Into History? With the publishing of his book, ‘The Interpretation of Cultures in 1973, Geertz has often been hailed as the ‘champion of symbolic anthropology. Geertz outlined culture as ‘a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which people communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and attitudes towards life He believed the role of anthropologists was to try and understand the underlying symbols of the culture in question, a term he describes as ‘Thick Description. Geertz also conducted extensive work on religion, particularly on Islam, in both Southeast Asia and North Africa. His most famous use of thick description is portrayed in the essay ‘Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight, and his theories still influence anthropology to this day. But how does the work of an anthropologist, concerned with analysing modern societies, apply to historians whose work concerns cultures from the past? In this essay I will examine how both anthropologists and historians attempt to examine humanity ‘in the mist, and how cultural historians in this endeavour have attempted to use an anthropological model to answer historical questions in order to do so. With the development of cultural history historians creation of the past as an ‘other, a place completely different from our own, they attempt to view history through an anthropological lens. But despite differences between historical and anthropological research there has been much interdisciplinary study between the two, with social and cultural historians attempting to use synchronic analysis as a way of viewing the past they are studying. History becomes a view of time and space all within a single plane that stays unmoving and none changing under the cultural historians gaze, just as the Bayeux tapestry shows the history and context of the Norman Conquest of England. Even with the rise of synchronic analysis, historians have not abandoned diachronic analysis as an analytical tool. Historians still feel they need to explain the context of the subjects they are studying in order for their research to be viewed as ‘complete. This has led to many criticisms of Geertzs work and how historians have applied his research to past societies. Geertzs detachment of culture and history has, in many cases, created more problems for the cultural historian than it has solved. Due to these difficulties, cultural historians have shied away from many larger historical debates in order to study features outside of the historical main-stream. They have focussed on small and, in some historians views, inconsequential histories, becoming bogged down in their own tedium. With this, social history has focussed on the development of social theory, rather than the society in questions development over time. With these views in mind, I have attempted to uses Geertzs analytical models with my own research: ‘Hearts and Minds: A Study on the impact of Christianity on paganism in the Byzantium Empire during the fourth century CE. Using examples drawn from my own work, I will attempt to see the merits of using an anthropological model while studying the religions of the past; those that were still evolving and those religions that were dying out. At this stage it is important to define the object which cultural historians have attempted to study with an anthropological view point; history itself. As a noun, ‘history can be defined as: 1) a continuous, systematic narrative of past events as relating to a particular people, country, period, person, etc., usually written as a chronological account; chronicle: a history of France; a medical history of the patient. 2) a systematic account of any set of phenomena without particular reference to time: a history of the American eagle. The definition of history as ‘a continuous, systematic narrative and as ‘a systematic account of any set of phenomena without particular reference to time, or, as phrased by Michael Chanan ‘the formal analysis of a given system as it exists in the present moment (synchronic) and analysis across time, or historical explanation (diachronic) means the historian has to show their awareness of both in order to fully explore the topic they are researching. The historian Marc Bloch stated that the ‘good historian was like the giant in the fairy tale. He knows that wherever he catches the scent of human flesh, there his quarry lies. While C. Wright-Mills remarked about the anthropologist: ‘What social science is properly about is human variety, which consists of all the social world in which men have lived, are living and might live. ‘ Cultural historians have embraced Geertz, using his ideas and methods and applying them to historical models, such as Matthew Eric Engelke and Matt Tomlinsons ‘The limits of meaning: case studies in the anthropology of Christianity. Although historians are not as prone to theoretical disputes as much as anthropologists, it is also true that Geertz does not serve as a marker in generalised struggles among historians. According to Paula S. Fass, the limitations of social history in previous historiography led to the development and ‘subsequent dominance of cultural history in the 1970s and 1980s. Despite the move in focus away from political elites towards the examination of social groups and their ‘behavioural tendencies , cultural historians felt that social history had ‘ignored both the uniqueness of individual experience and the ways in which social life is created through politics and culture due to the dehumanization of such social groups by reducing them to quantifiable data. Social historians reliance on structural explanations and development of group categories began to ‘deaden history as an exploration of contingent experience. By the mid 1980s, cultural historians were adapting work done by social historians, such as Herbert Gutman and Eugene Genovese, and taking them further by exploring ‘the way agency was attributed to participation in predefined group activity. Cultural historians increasingly used the anthropological and ‘post-modern perspective of identity as an ever-changing construct, what anthropologists refer to as ‘liminal experiences and deconstructing identity entirely. Due to this, social historians research potentials have become ‘quite limited due to the constrictions of primary sources in the construction of ‘ordinary life, while, in the words of Fass: ‘Cultural historians, in contrast, put their faith in a fuller exploration of language and because, in their view, all culture is connected, all forms of articulation could be examined as exemplary. Geertzs ideas have become so attractive to historians due to the development of cultural history, with historians focussing on the past as a place structurally different from the modern world: ‘worlds where peoples motives, senses of honour, daily tasks, and political calculations are based on unfamiliar assumptions about human society and the cosmic order. Phillip Pulsiano and Elaine M. Treharne in ‘A Companion to Anglo-Saxon Literature, explore the religious aspects in Old English poetry in relation to Geertzs definition of religion itself. Both anthropology and history, according to Geertz, are both similar and different, both looking for the same type of answers but asking different questions. Historians focus on broad sweeping actions and movements , while anthropologists focus on small, well bounded communities wallowing in the detail of the obscure and unimportant (or, as Geertz phrases it in his typically artistic style: ‘History (it is said), is threatened by the history-from-below rather than focussing on the Movers-and-Shakers, such as Kings, Philosophers and Bishops). Anthropologists ‘present static pictures of immobile societies scattered across the remote corners of the inhabited world, while anthropologists accuse historians of ‘schematicism, of being out of touch with the immediacies and intricacies, ‘the feel as they like to put it, considering themselves to have it, of actual life. With this said, it has not been unusual for historians and anthropologists to conduct research in each others field; historical research such as Roger Chartiers ‘The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution, Carlo Ginzburgs ‘The Cheese and the Worms: the Cosmos of an Sixteenth Century Miller, and Natalie Zemon Davis ‘Society and culture in early modern France: eight essays to name but a few. Despite the attraction of Geertzs theory to social historians, the differences between historical research and ethnography can hinder the historians full utilisation of Geertzs ‘Thick Description model. Historians are restricted to the textual evidence written by a literate elite, with the culture and symbols of those who existed outside of the elites literacy focus lost in the minds of those who lived through it; a stark difference from the ability of anthropologists to observe the effects of culture and its symbols when studying cultures ‘in the field. Despite historians criticisms of anthropologists reliance on oral testimony, with its possible ‘invented tradition and frailties of memory, Geertzs ability to examine the religious development of Morocco and Indonesia almost first hand must be greatly envied by social and cultural historians. Despite the difference between history and anthropology, many historians (especially social historians like Michael MacDonald and Robert Darnton) have embraced Geertzs ideas. However, this raises another question; why would historians, whose work is essentially diachronic in nature, be interested in the synchronic analysis of an anthropologist? It is important at this time to look at the meaning of synchronic analysis. As William H. Sewell Jr. explains: ‘Although a synchronic description or analysis is often glossed over as a ‘snapshot that ‘freezes time or as a ‘slice of time, that is not quite right. Such a description is, rather, one in which time is suspended or abolished analytically so that things that actually occur in the flow of time are treated as part of a uniform moment or epoch in which they simply coexist To put it otherwise, in synchronic description acts of cultural signification, rather than being treated as a temporal sequence of statement and counterstatement or as linked by causal chains of antecedent and consequence, are seen as components of a mutually defined and mutually sustaining universe of unchanging meaning. The use of synchronic analysis on what Geertz called ‘cultural systems presented cultural historians with the ability to explore the past with a new analytical model. Robert Darnton, in his book ‘The Great Cat Massacre uses such analyses to explore episodes from eighteenth century France, especially in his essays ‘Peasants Tell tales: The Meaning of Mother Goose (an analysis of the cultural significance to French, German and Italian fairy tales) and ‘Workers Revolt: The Great Cat Massacre of the Rue Saint Severin (in which he explores the cultural context of the massacre of cats in Paris by printing apprentices during the late 1730s). The use of thick description allows historians to suspend time rather than be carried along with historical narrative, and in the process analyse the transformations of the past with greater accuracy and depth. Geertzs ideas of thick description have allowed historians like David Sabean to explore witchcraft in seventeenth century Germany. Despite criticisms by anthropologists of the diachronic approach taken by historians in the past, many historians are still attached to the ideas of history in transformation. Many American ‘new social historians and those within the French ‘Annales school try to define themselves against historical narrative and by those ‘attempting to manage or side-step conceptual problems by writing historical accounts , such as Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson, as seen in his book ‘A History of the Jewish people. William H. Sewell Jr has best conveyed this view: ‘It [Geertzs theory] tells us, perhaps surprisingly, that adequately realized synchrony is more important to good historical analysis than adequately realized diachrony. In the eyes of professionals it is more important for a historian to know how to suspend time than to know how to recount its passage. This is shown in the work of historians such as Noriko Onodera, who examines the evolution and development of the Japanese language, and Stephen M. Feldman, with his analysis of the separation of the Church and State during the twentieth century. Although Geertzs theories have become popular with cultural historians, there have been many critics of not only his own work but how historians (especially those studying cultural aspects) have used Geertzs work in their own research. Although Geertzs work features events as they happen in real historical time, he uses a ‘literary device to make his work less formerly structured. This means that he uses the social and historical impact of the cultural model he is analysing as a writing style rather than a strict analytical tool. This is best demonstrated in Geertzs essay ‘Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight. William Roseberry, in an analysis of Geertzs essay (in his book ‘Balinese Cockfights and the Seduction of Anthropology), argues that Geertz does not take into account the history of its development, and that we should think of the ‘material social process as a ‘production rather than as a ‘product'(stating that the issues on development are mentioned but never taken up by Geertz). Roseberrys view, one which I personally agree with, is that ‘[the cockfight] has gone through a process of creation that cannot be separated from Balinese history. Geertz detached culture and history by treating history as a text to be read and scrutinised rather than being an essential thread in the fabric of Balinese life. Maybe due to this separation, historians, despite their enthusiasm, have been in many cases less than successful in their attempts to marry history with ‘Thick Description. For example, Roger Becks attempt to apply Geertzs description and interpretation to the symbol system of Mithraician mysticism is hardly successful, and neither is his comparison with the symbol system of the Mexican Chamulas. With historys diachronic roots, anthropology as a whole has had difficulty in finding fertile ground with historians outside of cultural history. With focus on ‘eccentric bits of evidence (or, as I view it, ‘obsession with the mundane), cultural historians and anthropologists writing about history search for evidence around a central point of argument and ‘build a mountain around a molehill and that molehill can lie on the periphery of the subject. Rather than pushing back the frontiers of historical research by opening up and exploring new channels of investigation through analysis of symbols within societies in the past, cultural historians have become intent with finding ‘hidden histories rather than bringing new light to work at the focus of historical debate. Despite the development of social theory by anthropologists and the rise of cultural history and its application to history, almost none deal with the explanation of historical change, with the main problem created by most social theory being the accounting for social order or social structure rather than the development and history of those roots. With my own research I have focused on the impact of Christianity on paganism in the eastern half of the Roman Empire during the fourth century CE, analysing how Christianity infiltrated aspects of the educated elite, society, the state apparatus and its depiction through art and on coinage. My work also focussed on a number of other factors: The peasants in the eastern half of the Roman Empire were naturally conservative and were initially hostile to the Christian community that were mainly based in urban centres. Eastern Roman peasants clung to their local pagan deities as they took care of their ‘first-order concerns: healing, death and family as pagan spirits and deities took care of these concerns there was no initial need to abandon them in favour of Christianity. Bishops and preachers that attempted to convert the peasantry failed as they were distrusted by the peasantry because of their connections to local government. Bishops and preachers also addressed them in Greek or Latin and in complex rhetoric styles, alienating them from the peasantry who spoke in their ‘everyday local dialects. The destruction of pagan temples in the urban centres and the construction of Christian basilicas on top of them or in their vicinity changed the power balance within such centres against the pagan cults. Only the establishment of monasteries away from the urban centres deep in the countryside led to the slow conversion of the peasantry through the contacts they made with them through local trade and due to the conversion tactics that the monasteries employed. Due to the amount of written documentation available to us, initially it may seem that Geertzs theories on symbolic systems in reference to early Christian rites and formal rituals may make Christianity in the fourth century eastern Roman Empire accessible to us. Although the study of early Christianitys cultural anthropology through field work is obviously impossible, the archaeological record of pagan temple destruction and the construction of Christian basilicas with the reused stone cannot be described as ‘thick description as the reuse of the stone from the pagan temples is not a symbolic act in its own right, but a form of cheap and readymade building material. However, Geertz himself has used written accounts from the past as effectively as he used his own field work and that of other anthropologists. This, however, cannot be said about localised pagan rituals; ones performed in homes and fields in small, personal shrines. Eric Wolf suggested that these rituals were due to peasants ‘first-order concerns, such as protection of the family unit in this world and the next. The lack of documented evidence, even if written by a condescending Christian elite, makes symbolic analysis extremely difficult. If we focus on pagan ‘lost ceremonies then Geertzs theory appears to be a hopeless endeavour. That is because, despite the richness and detail as a complex of symbols, textual evidence rarely mentions local pagan rituals for what they are, and when it does many aspects of them are either exaggerated or incredibly distorted, therefore destroying their immediate ritual context. Even if the ritual context had survived through the textual, or through the archaeological, evidence that would allow us to subject it to symbolic interpretation, it cannot now be interpreted in the way we can interpret Christianity; we cannot trace the evolution of a religion which is now extinct. To conclude, the work of Clifford Geertz has a lot to offer research into history, as long as his work is used correctly. In my introduction I stated ‘how both anthropologists and historians attempt to examine humanity ‘in the mist, and how cultural historians attempt to use anthropological models to answer historical questions in order to do so. In this endeavour, cultural historians have been unsuccessful. Geertz, and other anthropologists, benefit from the ability to view culture closely (and as Geertzs brush with the Balinese police shows, perhaps a little too closely). Cultural historians, in contrast, have to rely on the words of those they are trying to move away from, the literate elite, in order to view the lives of those who had no written history of their own. Rather than viewing humanity ‘in the mist, cultural historians, for instance have attempted to determine a peasants accent by studying the peasants reflection in a muddy puddle. Historians reluctance to abandon diachronic analysis undermines the benefits of synchronic analysis, despite anthropologists attempts to conduct historical research. Cultural historians attempts to ‘suspend time removes them from the historical development that took place, therefore allowing them to be caught up in the difficulties that anthropologist themselves have faced. This problem is only exacerbated by the reliance on textual evidence. As shown with my attempt to use Geertzs theories in relation to my own research, I too had difficulties overcoming this problem. As I used a large amount of archaeological evidence when researching the power shift from pagan to Christian domination in eastern Roman urban centres it was nearly impossible to apply ‘thick description and investigate symbolic systems due to their lack of context. Again, the reliance on textual evidence written by a hostile group means that there are other historical methods which would be more beneficial when symbolic contexts and restricted written records are unavailable. At face value, I understand the appeal Geertzs theories would have for cultural historians trying to uncover the mindset, culture and experiences of those who lived in the past. However, the ability for anthropologists to study their subject at first hand, and therefore place more emphasis on first-hand accounts, leaves cultural historians at a crucial disadvantage. Geertzs theory changed the face of anthropological research, but I doubt it will do nothing but frustrate the historian by reminding them of what they are missing. Bibliography Books R. Beck, The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun (Oxford New York, 2006) H. H. Ben-Sasson A History of the Jewish people (Cambridge, 1976) M. Bloch, ‘The Historians Craft (Manchester, 1954) P. Burke, The French historical Revolution: ‘The Annales School, 1929-89 (Stanford 1990) M. Chanan, Musica practica : the social practice of Western music from Gregorian chant to postmodernism (London, 1994) R. Chartier The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution (Durham, 1991) R. Darnton, The Great Cat Massacre (New York, 1984) N. Z. Davis Society and culture in early modern France: eight essays (Stanford, 1987) M.E. Engelke and M.Tomlinson (ed.) The limits of meaning: case studies in the anthropology of Christianity (New York, 2006) S. M. Feldman Please Dont Wish Me a Merry Christmas: Critical History of the Separation of Church and State (New York, 1997) C. Geertz Islam Observed: Religious Development in Morocco and Indonesia (Chicago, 1971) C. Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures'(New York, 1973) E. Genovese Roll, Jordon Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York, 1974) C. Ginzburg The Cheese and the Worms: the Cosmos of an Sixteenth Century Miller (Baltimore, 1980) H. Gutman Work, Culture and Society in Industrializing America (New York, 1976) M. MacDonald, Witchcraft and Hysteria in Elizabethan London(London 1991) N. Onodera, Japanese discourse markers: synchronic and diachronic discourse analysis (Amsterdam, 2004) P. Pulsiano and E. M. Treharne A Companion to Anglo-Saxon Literature (Oxford, 2001) W. Roseberry, Balinese Cockfights and the Seduction of Anthropology (New York, 1982) E. Wolf, Peasants (Englewood Cliffs, 1966) C. Wright-Mills, ‘The Sociological Imagination (London, 1959) Journals P. S. Fass ‘Cultural History/Social History: Some Reflections on a Continuing Dialogue, Journal of Social History, 37, 1(2003), pp. 39-46 C. Geertz, ‘History and Anthropology New Literary History, 21, (1990) p.321-335 W. H. Sewell Jr., ‘Geertz, Cultural Systems, and History: From Synchrony to Transformation, Representations, 59 (1997) p. 35-55 Internet Sources http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/history (Dictionary Reference.Com, 2010) C. Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York, 1973) p.89 http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/history M. Chanan, Musica practica : the social practice of Western music from Gregorian chant to postmodernism (London, 1994) p.95 M. Bloch, The Historians Craft (Manchester, 1954) p.26 C, Wright-Mills, The Sociological Imagination (London, 1959) p.147 W. H. Sewell Jr. ‘Geertz, Cultural Systems, and History: From Synchrony to Transformation Representations,59 (1997) p.35-55, p.36 P. S. Fass ‘Cultural History/Social History: Some Reflections on a Continuing Dialogue Journal of Social History, 37, 1 (2003) p.39-46, p.39 Ibid. p.39 Ibid p.39 Ibid p.39 H. Gutman Work, Culture and Society in Industrializing America (New York, 1976) and E. Genovese Roll, Jordon Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York, 1974) Fass, ‘Cultural History/Social History: Some Reflections on a Continuing Dialogue p.39 Ibid p.40 W. H. Sewell Jr., ‘Geertz, Cultural Systems, and History: From Synchrony to Transformation p.38 C. Geertz, ‘History and Anthropology New Literary History, 21, (1990) p.321-335, p322 Ibid p324 Ibid.p.322 Ibid p.321 Ibit p.321-322 Ibid. p.322 See C. Geertzs Islam Observed: Religious Development in Morocco and Indonesia (Chicago, 1971) M. MacDonald, Witchcraft and Hysteria in Elizabethan London(London 1991) R. Darnton, The Great Cat Massacre (New York, 1984) W. H. Sewell Jr., ‘Geertz, Cultural Systems, and History: From Synchrony to Transformation p.40 See ‘Religion as a Cultural System in C. Geertz, The Interpretations of Culture (New York, 1973) D. W. Sabean, Power in the Blood: Popular culture village discourse in early modern Germany (Cambridge, 1984) See P. Burke, The French Historical Revolution: ‘The Annales School, 1929-89 (Stanford, 1990) C. Geertz, ‘History and Anthropology p.42 Ibid. p.41 N. Onodera, Japanese discourse markers: synchronic and diachronic discourse analysis(Amsterdam, 2004) p.23 S. M. Feldman Please Dont Wish Me a Merry Christmas: Critical History of the Separation of Church and State (New York, 1997) p.255 W. H. Sewell Jr ‘Geertz, Cultural Systems, and History: From Synchrony to Transformation p.37, c. Geertz The Interpretation of Cultures p.412 W. Roseberry, Balinese Cockfights and the Seduction of Anthropology (New York, 1982) p.1022, I bid p.1022 R. Beck, The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun (Oxford New York, 2006) p.69, Ibid P77 Fass, ‘Cultural History/Social History: Some Reflections on a Continuing Dialogue p.43 Ibid p.43 C. Geertz, The Interpretation of Culture p.8 E. Wolf, Peasants (Englewood Cliffs, 1966) p.59