Saturday, December 28, 2019
Unit 39: investigating international business P5: understand the strategies used by international businesses page: 14 Introduction Unit 39 is all about investigating international business. This P is the final assignment. My suggestions are approved by the financial department as well as by the board of directors. My senior made me in charge of the strategy. The next step to take before entering Australia is to construct a strategy about how this will take place. In other words, I have to develop a strategic plan how you are going to enter Australia. A strategy in nothing more than a decision making with well-considered arguments. I need the previous findings of P1, P2, P3Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦About 2 % of the population have poor quality of fingerprint, especially the elder people and manual worker. For these cases one need to consider other biometrics or any other solution. * Performance deterioration over time. Although the fingerprint is a stable physiological characteristic, it can suffer some small changes along the time and therefore it can affect the performance of the whole system. To overcom e this problem, may be necessary to re-enrol the fingerprint and/or use multiple fingerprints enrolment. * Association with forensic application. The fingerprint technology has been associate with forensic and this can cause discomfort to some people. Specially, in the countries where it is not habitual the use of fingerprint. Opportunities in Australia * Technological advances We know that technology changes too fast and this would make biometrics be easier, faster, and more accurate. * Combinability of Biometrics and another security systems It would be great if biometrics would be combined with security systems like passwords, account numbers, etc. * Terror threats If there happens to be great terror threats and security fears, biometrics would become a boom. More and more individualsShow MoreRelatedManaging and Organizing for Innovation in Service Firms a Literature Review with Annotated Bibliography30787 Words Ã |Ã 124 Pageslinked to research and development. Our tasks are to fund needs-driven research and to strengthen the networks that are a necessary part of an effective innovation system. VINNOVAs commitments in the field of work life development aim to strengthen business and public sectors contribution for a sustainable development by enlightening the importance of the employee as an actor and a creative resource. Focus lies on the organisation of work, and on management and leadership that increase the ability toRead MoreDells Supply Chain Strategies39734 Words Ã |Ã 159 PagesDellÃ¢â¬â¢s Supply Chain Strategies Areti Manataki Master of Science Artificial Intelligence School of Informatics University of Edinburgh 2007 Abstract Supply Chain Management is becoming more and more important for the success of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business world. Dell has realized this trend from its very first steps and has become one of the most successful PC companies in the world by putting emphasis on its supply chain, orchestrating its build-to-order and direct sales strategies. While most of theRead MoreInternal Audit as an Effective Internal Control System at Ongc17652 Words Ã |Ã 71 PagesCONTENTS 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2. INTRODUCTION Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Ã¯â · Literature Review Global Oil Gas Industry Overview Indian Oil Gas Industry Overview Company Overview (ONGC) 2 4 6 6 20 23 24 26 28 38 39 40 41 3. INTERNAL CONTROL INTERNAL AUDIT Ã¯â · Internal Control Ã¯â · Internal Audit Ã¯â · Standards on Internal Audit 4. PROJECT PROFILE Ã¯â · Objectives Ã¯â · Research Methodology 5. LEARNINGS OBSERVATIONS Ã¯â · Learnings Ã¯Æ'Ë Ã¯Æ'Ë Ã¯Æ'Ë Ã¯Æ'Ë Ã¯Æ'Ë Ã¯Æ'Ë Ã¯Æ'Ë Audit Scope Coverage Organisation Structure of IA Department Audit planning processRead MoreManaging Information Technology (7th Edition)239873 Words Ã |Ã 960 PagesVendor-Managed Inventory at NIBCO CASE STUDY II-2 Real-Time Business Intelligence at Continental Airlines CASE STUDY II-3 Norfolk Southern Railway: The Business Intelligence Journey CASE STUDY II-4 Mining Data to Increase State Tax Revenues in California CASE STUDY II-5 The CliptomaniaÃ¢â ¢ Web Store: An E-Tailing Start-up Survival Story CASE STUDY II-6 Rock Island Chocolate Company, Inc.: Building a Social Networking Strategy CASE STUDY III-1 Managing a Systems DevelopmentRead More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words Ã |Ã 1422 PagesPrinter: Courier Corporation/Kendallville Ã © 2008, 2005 Duxbury, an imprint of Thomson Brooks/Cole, a part of The Thomson Corporation. Thomson, the Star logo, and Brooks/Cole are trademarks used herein under license. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any meansÃ¢â¬âgraphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution, information storage and retrieval systems, or in any other mannerÃ¢â¬âwithout
Thursday, December 19, 2019
William FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ begins and ends with death. The death of Miss Emily Grierson, the main character in the short story that takes on the role of a person with an abnormal personality. The narrator tells the tale of Miss EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s life following her departure at age seventy four. Although, Miss Emily lived a long life she remained secluded for decades without any human contact. Miss EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s mental health is certainly a questionable matter considering the life she leads in this fictional short story. Ã¢â¬Å"Human beings have enormous potential to strive toward a higher plane of emotional lifeÃ¢â¬ (Brenton 2). With this being said individuals who encounter chronic stress and lack the basic human relationships compromise their mental health. By examining Miss EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s mental status, behavior, interactions and personal relationships, it is possible she would have been diagnosed with a form of mental illness according to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s standards. Miss EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s life takes place during the time of The Great Depression era, a time when modern psychology was first discovered and formatted (Ã¢â¬Å"Wilhelm WundtÃ¢â¬ ). According to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s standards of medicine mental illness is still a debatable issue. Mental illness is real, involving the disruption of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s thought processes, experiences, and emotions, therefore causing functional impairment when these disturbances reach a serious level (Perring). When this level is reached it becomes challenging for one to bond throughShow MoreRelatedWilliam Faulkner s A Rose For Emily951 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesliterary Response to Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ by William Faulkner was published in 1930. This short story is set in an old southern town. I believe that this and several other combinations of events are what made the main character Miss Emily go insane. Miss Emily was an old school southern woman trapped in a modernizing society. She tried desperately to keep to her old ways, but the changes that happened around her were inevitable. This made me feel like something was going to goRead MoreWilliam Faulkner s A Rose For Emily1316 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesminuscule detail in the writing. In order to fully enjoy William FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ readers must do the latter. Faulkner is a witty writer; some symbols are less obvious than others in his writing. To fully appreciate and obtain full meaning of the text readers must pay attention to his symbols and how they contribute to the greater theme. William Faulkner uses symbolization in Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ to develop a theme of personal struggle. Emily faces many personal struggles: her relationship withRead MoreWilliam Faulkner s A Rose For Emily1181 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Is William Faulkner s A Rose for Emily iconic American literature? Faulkner uses setting, theme and plot to show the ways Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ is an iconic American literature. Faulkner saw the Forum magazine with his short story he wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ and found out that was his first national publication. The Mississippi Writers Page says, Ã¢â¬Å"The man himself never stood taller than five feet, six inches tall, but in the realm of American literature, William Faulkner is a giantÃ¢â¬ (MWP). Read MoreWilliam Faulkner s A Rose For Emily1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespoint of view is A Rose for Emily told? Why? In William Faulkner s short story A Rose for Emily the reader is given the account of an old woman who is rejected by society. The reader is acquainted with Miss Emily Grierson by a spectator, somebody who is not Miss Emily, but rather part of the town that rejects her. The storyteller has a somewhat omniscient perspective, knowing more than the normal town s individual, however not all that matters there is to think about Miss Emily. The storytellerRead MoreWilliam Faulkner s A Rose For Emily1801 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages William Faulkner is known for his many short stories, however, many has wondered what has influenced him in writing these stories. Like his well known, most famous short story Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ , which has always been compared to Ã¢â¬Å"Barn BurningÃ¢â¬ , one of FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s other short story. It only make sense to compare them two together because these two stories has may similarities , whether it may be in setting , characters or style they favor each other . Nevertheless they also have many differencesRead MoreWilliam Faulkner s A Rose For Emily957 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBereavement While a Ã¢â¬Å"Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ by William Faulkner and Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man is Hard to FindÃ¢â¬ by Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor share the common themes of unexpected death and the old south, the murders found in each story are vastly different. Both stories tell of strong female protagonists who donÃ¢â¬â¢t cope well with change and both foreshadow death right from the beginning, but the murderers themselves come from completely different worlds. Emily Grierson of Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for Emily and the grandmother in Ã¢â¬Å"ARead MoreWilliam Faulkner s A Rose For Emily879 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesare both similar due to how these emotions cause a human to act irrationally. The lone woman in A Rose for Emily and the cashier, Sammy, in A P both portrayed a greater sense of hate which overcame their love. We as humans, capable of powerful emotion typically act too quickly to even understand the consequences of our actions. One prime example is portrayed in William FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s A Rose for Emily, Emily loved Homer tremendously, however he did not feel the same way Ã¢â¬ he liked men, and it was knownRead MoreWilliam Faulkner s A Rose For Emily1682 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLyons Professor Amy Green Writing about Literature COM1102 Oct. 06, 2015 William Faulkner s A Rose for Emily is a short story that has also been adapted into a short film; both have been largely debated. FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of a normal chronology and situation-triggered memories generates a story that has many understandings among its readers, but surprises everyone at the end. When asked about the title of his story, Faulkner said, [The title] was an allegorical title; the meaning was, here was aRead MoreWilliam Faulkner s A Rose For Emily854 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Literary Response to Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ by William Faulkner was published in 1930. This short story is set in an old southern town. I believe that this and several other combinations of events are what made the main character Miss Emily go insane. Miss Emily was a old school southern woman trapped in a modernizing society. She tried desperately to try and keep to her old ways, but the changes were inevitable. This made me feel like something was going to go wrong very early inRead MoreWilliam Faulkner s A Rose For Emily1810 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages William Faulkner is one amazing writing ,who is known for his many short stories .However, many has wondered what has influenced him in writing these stories . Like his well known, most famous short story Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ , which has always been compared to Ã¢â¬Å"Barn BurningÃ¢â¬ , one of FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s other short story. It only make sense to compare them two together because these two stories has may similarities , whether it may be in setting , characters or style they favor each other . Nevertheless
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Hemp Proves To Be Beneficial Essay, Research Paper Hemp Proves to be Beneficial Researching hemp I have found that there are many more benefits in legalising it, so there are maintaining it illegal. When questioning people I found that the bulk of the people who know the difference between hemp and marihuanas agreed that it should be legalized and if they didn? T I informed them on hemp they agreed it should be legalized. In this paper I will state you many ground? s why I think hemp should be legalized and I will give you ground? s why other people think it should stay illegal in the United States. Hemp is the chaff and blast of the works Cannabis Sativa and merely contains 1 % or less of THC ( The Economist 1 ) . THC is the chemical which causes you to acquire high and is found in marihuana. Marijuana is a recreational drug that has many medical utilizations and it is the foliage of Cannabis Sativa. Hemp Cannabis Sativa is a works that grows from one to five metres high in a short turning season of 120 yearss. Its long taproot allows it to turn in any conditions conditions, which makes it convenient to turn in big measures where there is no irrigation, and can be grown in all 50 provinces ( Marijuana par. 8 ) . Hemp is better than cotton, the trees we use to do paper, and the building stuffs we use. Hemp was one of the first cultivated harvests known to adult male. It has been around since 8000 BC. It was required to turn hemp when America was going a state. Peoples had the option to pay their revenue enhancements with it ; George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grew and supported hemp. Then in 1937 the Marijuana Tax Act was passed which killed the industry that twelvemonth ( Marijuana par. 8 ) . It was legalized once more during WWII to assist the solders with their hurting. Up until the 1990? s the legalisation of hemp was non an issue, but now people see the economic values that hemp has and the issue is going immense. The ground hemp was banned was because of the increasing figure of people utilizing it as a screen up to turning marihuanas for recreational intents. But, what most people don? T know is that it was banned in the senate without any say from people who new the value of hemp toward the growing of the state. After it was set, marihuana was no longer a job and that? s how the United States wants to maintain it. But have they thought about the fact that cultivating pot production would extinguish the bloody smuggling trades at the southern boundary line of the United States. Some of hemp? s many utilizations are paper, fabrics, building stuffs, nutrient, rope, plastics and fuel. All of these are made from hemp, non marijuana, which has a really little sum THC in it ( Martin par. 9 ) . Many people think hemp will shortly be replaced by cotton due to its many benefits. Why is hemp better than cotton? Here are merely a few grounds. One acre of hemp will bring forth as much fibre as two or three estates of cotton. Hemp requires no pesticides or weedkillers and merely little sums of fertiliser. On the other manus, cotton uses 50 % of the universe? s pesticides and weedkillers. Hemp is besides stronger, softer, and lasts longer than cotton ( Marijuana par. 3 ) . The advantages of utilizing hemp to bring forth paper is that one acre of hemp will bring forth as much paper as two to four estates of trees. This would gross United States husbandmans $ 19-30 billion, and would salvage consumers money ( Martin par 8 ) . Besides, like cotton, paper uses a batch of chemicals and by utilizing hemp the chemicals used in the procedure of doing paper would be reduced by 80 % . The most of import ground hemp should be used in paper production is that there is a limited figure of trees left on this planet and the tree return to hanker to turn to maintain up with the universes demand. If we decided to get down recycling more hemp it can be recycled many more times than paper today, since it is free of all acid. Using hemp when doing plyboard and fibreboard makes the board stronger, lighter, and longer enduring so regular wood. Hemp board is used in more and more new houses due to its lastingness in temblors, hurricanes and other terrible conditions. Hemp is besides been used in doing bio-plastics late they have been utilizing the fibres inside the blast for composite stuffs. Because of the strength of hemp fiber the success of the research is increasing. Food is another usage for hemp. With a smattering of hemp seeds you can acquire the indispensable sum of protein and fatty acids you need in a twenty-four hours. Hemp seed is the lone seed, which contains these oils with about no concentrated fat. By utilizing hemp seed as a addendum in your diet you can cut down the hazard of bosom disease. Hemp seed is better than soya beans, it hemp rhenium sists UV-B visible radiation better so soy. And if the ozone layers where to consume by 16 % the soya bean production would drop 25-30 % ( Hemp industry, par 12 ) . Hemp should it stay Illegal? That is what a bulk of this states authorities feels. Carol Falkowski provinces, ? The job is non people will acquire high smoking the low-TCH hemp, but that it is identical from its more powerful cousin and could function as a screen for illegal cultivation? a concern that hemp protagonists jeer at? ( Suzukamo 6C ) . By legalising hemp, many feel as though you are legalising marihuana, since most people think that they are the same thing. Besides hemp would be a good screen up to turn marihuanas illicitly once more. This is the lone ground why people think that it should stay illegal and it a good ground. But like most hemp protagonists do you believe this ground it is strong plenty to overlook all of the advantages of doing hemp legal. As of right now, turning hemp for industrial utilizations is legal. But there is a gimmick. It costs $ 1000 for a license, and at that place hard to acquire one time you have applied. If you are one of the lucky people who receive a license, you must acquire a security system. That has criterions about impossible to run into. It consists of a fencing around the field with biting wire on the fencing, armed guards around the clock, electronic detection equipment. This needs to be done around each field planted with hemp ( Martin par. 12 ) . These criterions are to maintain husbandmans from turning hemp, so they will non recognize what the value could be to them and the state. Soon the authorities will see how much money they could do by legalising hemp and as a consequence, it may be legalized in the close hereafter. The authorities spends $ 500 million dollars every twelvemonth merely seeking to extinguish wild hemp and if they spent that money get downing to turn it, the state would be better off ( Morris par. 3 ) . It could non ache the authorities to seek turning hemp in the United States. They could seek it with about 50 farms for the first twelvemonth like Canada did, so if it worked out they would hold an industry that makes money and creates occupations for the citizens of America. If it did non work out, opportunities are the county would endure small to no loss. Just late the province of North Dakota was allowed to turn, purchase sell and trade hemp for industrial utilizations. This was passed in the senate on April 19, 1999. The authorities has seen the economical values of hemp and now husbandmans have their opportunity to demo America that he mp is benefiticial to the states growing. And who knows, could Minnesota be following? In the interviews I did from college pupils more than three quarters of the pupils I interviewed agreed that hemp should be legalized. Wes Meyer a college fresher says? perfectly one-hundred per centum? when being asked if hemp should be legalized, he besides stated, ? Because the fact that hemp is a really utile merchandise and it is good to the environment? . The other part of the people that said no, but when I asked them? Why? ? they had no ground. So I asked them if they new the difference between hemp and marihuana, they did non cognize and after I informed them about hemp. All of them agreed with me that hemp should be legalized. After making the interview with college fresher I realized that the hereafter of our state is in full support when it comes to legalising hemp. So in the hereafter we should see hemp as a prima hard currency harvest in the state with all of the benefits it has to assist the state? s economic system. Researching hemp I have found that there are many more benefits in legalising it, so there are maintaining it illegal. In this paper cubic decimeter told you many ground? s why I think hemp should be legalized and I gave you ground? s why other people think it should stay illegal in the United States. In drumhead I think what of all time can assist the state deserves a opportunity. We built the atomic bomb and we new it would merely do things worse, but we did it to turn out to other states that we are powerful. So why can? t we seek something that has overpowering benefits compared to the few disadvantages. Plants Cited ? Hemp industry overview. ? Hemp-Agro 27 March 1999. ? Hemp? s good habits. ? The Economist 1 Aug. 1998: p55 ( 1 ) . ( PALS full text version ) . ? Marijuana and Hemp The Untold Story. ? Cannabis Action Network 4 March 1999. Martin, David. ? Overview of Industrial Hemp? 23 February 1998. Morris, David. ? Canada enlightened on issue of Hemp. ? St. Paul Pioneer Press 16 June 1998: 7A. Survey. 29 April 1999, College Freshman. Suzukamo, Leslie Brooks. ? Industrial hemp may be close legal Oklahoma? St. Paul Pioneer Press 4 March 1999: 1C+ .
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Sustainable Strategic Management Capabilities. Answer: Introduction Every business has a strategy before its commencement. The success of a business depends upon how well its strategy is. Strategy works as a roadmap for an organization. Without it no organization can survive in this competitive market. Now we come to strategic management, strategic management ensures whether the organization is running as per the strategy. Strategic management refers to a plan which helps an organization to achieve its objectives by efficient utilization of available resources and manpower. Strategic management evaluates the strengths, opportunities, weaknesses and threats of the business to use the strengths and opportunities in this way that it will minimizes the weaknesses and threats of the business. Strategic management is a continuous process which includes internal and external environmental scanning, strategy formulation, strategy implementation, evaluation and control. Strategic management firstly make a plan in accordance with the SWOT of the organization, then it executes the plan and then evaluates the actual results to identify whether the actual results match the desired results and if there is any difference in actual and desired results then changes are required to be made in the strategy. A strategy can be formed at three levels i.e. Business unit level, Corporate level and Functional or Departmental level. Strategic management focuses on analyzing the external environment of an organization because without judging the competition level that an organization is going to face, strategy cannot be formed (Godfrey, 2015). In other words, strategic management is known as the mission of an organization. Mission refers to how the organization will achieve its vision or objectives or goals. Strategic management makes sure that the management of the business goes hand in hand with the internal and external forces. Current Standard Linear Approach Under this approach, the managers focus on creation of an effective business strategy and on its proper execution. This approach focuses on making a strategy in such a way that it will lead to achievement of organizational goals. This approach analyses the goal and stresses on making a strategy with all possible ways of achieving that particular goal. In fact, the Linear approach refers to step by step process in which when the first stage completes then only the organization can start working on another stage i.e. the output of first stage is the raw material of second stage. Linear approach is an organized approach (Linear Approach, 2017). The strategy made through this approach is totally in an arranged manner. So because of the organized manner this approach guarantees success to the business. The major shortcoming of this approach is that if there is a delay in the first process then it will delay the whole project because the other stages are dependent on the outcome of first stage. Another disadvantage is that it is very time consuming because if there is any fault in the output of any process them it will also influence the other processes because all the processes are inter-related.and it will not allow the employees to give their opinions. Bridoux and Stoelhorst (2014) observed that stakeholder approach to strategic management emphasizes on importance of making investments in improving relationship of organization with its key stakeholders. According to this approach, the stability of relationship with stakeholders can be achieved through organizations compliance to core principles of values. Stakeholders are the people that exist within the organization and outside the organization. In support of this De Brucker et al. (2013) said that without stakeholders, the existence of a business is impossible. Stakeholders include shareholders, creditors, government, community, customers, suppliers, employees, directors and managers. As per the analysis of stakeholder approach to strategic management, the stakeholder relationship is a readymade component in business; rather it is created by organizational efforts. Shareholders are the people that takes the shares of the company, Creditors provides loan to the company, government passes rules and regulations for the ethical running of the company, community is the place where the company exists, customers are the people that purchases the companys products, suppliers provides the raw material to the company, employees are the workers of the company, directors and managers are the persons who will take care of the whole management of the company. Bur Freeman (2010) pointed out that the only difference is that directors are at top level and managers are at middle level. In this way these all are very important for any company or organization for its survival. Stakeholders are those, who are affected by or can affect the organization. There are two types of stakeholders i.e. one is primary stakeholders that includes those who are connected to the organization officially and the other are secondary stakeholders which are connected with the organization through the society. So every organization is having a corporate social responsibility towards its secondary stakeholders because the organization is taking the natural and human resources from the society so it is the responsibility of every organization to return these resources in the form of manufactured products according to the desires of the consumers keeping in mind that such products are not harmful for the consumers (Carroll and Shabana, 2010). The four types of corporate social responsibility are economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. Economic responsibility means the company should try to become a good corporate citizen and for this the company must be profitable. For example: If a company faces losses then it will terminate the empl oyees firstly. Legal responsibilities includes that the company should have to follow the policies and procedures given by the laws. Ethical responsibility is the third responsibility of an organization because any organization can think of this responsibility only if it has met the economic and legal responsibilities. Examples of ethical responsibility are: paying fair wages to workers, not harming the environment, not using the natural resources that are banned etc. Pino, et al. (2016) have articulated and observed that Philanthropic responsibility includes doing something better for the society. For example, giving goods to the society at free of cost, doing charity, etc. Philanthropic social responsibility is only adopted by an organization which is highly profitable because such organization can think of donating money and products to the society. This philanthropic responsibility is only done by companies that are having higher profit margins. Example of stakeholder theory: Every automobile company is required to focus on consumer safety. There is a case of Toyota, where the company was hiding the brake pedal fault instead of releasing it. The U.S. agencies put fine of $16 million on Toyota for not releasing the fault then the interested stakeholders made an effort to deal with this problem. Dynamic Capabilities As per the findings of Lin and Wu (2014), the framework of dynamic capabilities in strategic management can help in wealth creation in an organization. It helps the organizations to identify the sources and methods of wealth creation and guides to adopt rapid technological changes for maximization of its wealth. A dynamic capability refers to the ability of an organization to adapt the environmental changes from time to time or to adapt an organizations resource base. Dynamic capabilities include controlling the factors of external and internal environment that affects the business. On the other hand, Peteraf et al. (2013) have commented that the dynamic capability framework suggests that the wealth creation in private sector is highly influenced by companys ability to stay competitive in the market. The competitiveness can be measured in terms of uniqueness of company products, brand image, technological competency etc. Second example is of smart phones where the smart phones compan ies are adding new technological features to their products like Apple launched the censored home button in iphone 7 and vivo is focusing on the camera. In the views of Cordes-Berszinn (2013), the dynamic capability framework emphasizes on three aspects such as the process, the position and the paths. The processes are the routines, pattern of practices and learning. At the same time, position can be measured in the aspects of technology level, IP, customer base, complementary assets and the external relations. At the same time, the paths are the strategic alternatives that can help organization to improve its current business and competitive market position. Companies should focus on resource based perspective while looking to improve their competency level for achieving the competitive business position in market. Sustainable Approach According to De Brucker et al. (2013), the sustainable approach to strategic management directs or guides the management of companies to consider the interest of each stakeholders of company including nature or environment, because sustainability is the key to success. While making strategy, the main focus is to make a strategy that will guarantee sustainability to an organization. Sustainability refers to long-term survival of a business to maintain competitive advantage. Similar to this, Witek-Crabb, (2011) has argued that if an organizations vision is high profits then it will only be possible through sustainability. Sustainability can be affected by three things i.e. the environment in which the organization exists, resources that organization needs presently and in future and whether the organization is beneficial to the economy. Sustainability leads to competitive advantage to an organization. Adobe is an example of company that has adopted the sustainable business practices. T his company aimed to reduce carbon emission by 75% by end of 2015. It emphasized on key practices of usage of renewable energy technologies, virtualization of many of its systems, improving cooling efficiency, usage of hydrogen fuel cells, solar energy equipments etc. The involvement of company in such as practices improves the public image of company. Competitive advantage occurs when a company continuously gives excellent performance over other companies in the same industry. For example, Wal-Mart is a latest example of sustainable competitive advantage. The strategies and detailed distribution channel of Wal-Mart makes it different from its competitors because it is providing goods to the consumers at a lower price than its competitors (Stead, 2014). However, if the company fails to fulfill its responsibility towards environment or society in sustainable manner, then it can invite negative consequences. For example, Coca Cola has faced the legal action in December 2003 due to negative effects of operations on availability of drinking water in a village of Kerala, where company operates its beverage operations (BHRRC, 2017). Such kinds of lawsuits can impose huge legal fines that are harmful for its profitability position. The purpose of this approach is to help you to understand in detail about strategic management. These are th e findings of the report: Viability of Approaches Stakeholders approach avoids the conflicts between different departments of employees of the organization. Stakeholders approach results in the performance measurement of the organization. Boutilier (2011) has asserted that stakeholder approach makes healthy relationships between the organization and the stakeholders. Stakeholders help in managing the risks and to overcome the threats of the organization. Through stakeholders approach, an organization is valuing the opinions of the people working within the organization which motivates the employees and they will contribute towards achieving the goal. Those organizations who are adopting dynamic capabilities approach believe in innovation. Wheelen and Hunger (2010) have indicated that Dynamic capabilities results in valuable, rare, inimitable and non- substitutable business. It helps the organization to create value by altering their resource base. Sustainable approach contributes to effectiveness and efficiency which are the core co mpetencies of every business. Through Sustainability, organizations are able to maintain competitive advantage. High sustainable companies value their employees. In this way, these three approaches help the business to succeed and grow. The major benefit of strategic management is that it helps the organization to identify its opportunities. Strategic management helps the organization to analyze the cost- benefit relationship. Those firma which are using strategic management are more beneficial than firms that are not using strategic management in their operations (Cordes-Berszinn, 2013). Another benefit of strategic management is that it helps in developing team building skills among the employees of the organization. Strategic management helps the organization to take decisions at the time of sudden crises. Strategic management also clears the confusion from the minds of employees regarding their duties. Implementation Issues Implementation is the action plan of strategic management process so it requires full attention. The success and failure of strategy can be judged after this phase. This is the practical version of strategic planning done so far. In this phase, we have to put the plan on paper in action. 90% of firms fail to implement their strategic plans. This is the most important phase so many issues are also related to this phase. The first issue is putting right people to right place because for this the manager needs to identify the skills and potential of each employee. The major issue is the unpredictable future (Godfrey, 2015). Because strategy is made on hypothesis and no one knows what changes can happen in the future. So if any sudden changes occur them it leads to failure of the strategy. These sudden changes includes Technological changes, increase in the cost of raw material, changes in government rules and regulations, conflict among the stakeholders, etc. One more issue is the incre ase in budget if the desired results do not match the actual results then the strategy needs to be revised. Conclusion No doubt strategic management is full of advantages to an organization but there are also some limitations of strategic management. The major limitation of strategic management is it is a very complex process because it involves analysis of critical components like internal and external environment, structure of the organization, economic crises, etc (Cordes-Berszinn, 2013). The factors of external and internal environment are inter-related to each other. So if there are changes in one factor then it will automatically affect the other. For example: if there are economic crises then it in that case the company needs to reduce the number of employees so in this case economic crises is a external factor and the reduction of number of employees is a internal factor (Carroll and Shabana, 2010). In this way the external factor affected the organizations internal factor and the increased employee turnover rate will automatically reduces the productivity of the organization. The next limita tion is that the Strategic management process is very time consuming because it includes five major stages. First is analysis the organizations SWOT, second stage is strategy formulation, third stage is strategy implementation, fourth stage is strategy evaluation and the fifth stage is controlling. References Boutilier, R. (2011) A Stakeholder Approach to Issues Management. USA: Business Expert Press. Carroll, A.B. and Shabana, K.M. (2010) The business case for corporate social responsibility: A review of concepts, research and practice, International journal of management reviews, 12(1), pp. 85-105. Cordes-Berszinn, P. (2013) Dynamic Capabilities: How Organizational Structures Affect Knowledge Processes. USA: Palgrave Macmillan. Freeman, E. (2010) Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. UK: Cambridge University Press. Godfrey, Richard. (2015) Strategic Management: A Critical Introduction. UK: Routledge. Hill, Charles W. L. Schilling, Melissa A. Jones, Gareth R. (2016) Strategic Management: Theory: An Integrated Approach. USA: Cengage Learning. Linear Approach (2017) Thinking outside the lines: linear strategic planning versus adaptive strategic thinking. [Online]. Available at: https://scienceofstrategy.org/main/content/thinking-outside-lines-linear-strategic-planning-versus-adaptive-strategic-thinking (Accessed: 18 May 2017). Stead, W.E. (2014) Sustainable Strategic Management. UK: Routledge. Wheelen, T., Hunger, L., and David, J. (2010) Strategic Management and Business Policy: Achieving Sustainability. UK: Prentice Hall. Witek-Crabb, A. (2011) Sustainable strategic management, Journal of International Economic Publications: Economy and Business, 5, 45-53. BHRRC (2017) Coca-Cola lawsuit (re India). [Online]. Available at: https://business-humanrights.org/en/coca-cola-lawsuit-re-india (Accessed: 20 May 2017). Bridoux, F. and Stoelhorst, J.W. (2014) Microfoundations for stakeholder theory: Managing stakeholders with heterogeneous motives, Strategic Management Journal, 35(1), pp. 107-125. De Brucker, K., Macharis, C. and Verbeke, A. (2013) Multi-criteria analysis and the resolution of sustainable development dilemmas: A stakeholder management approach, European journal of operational research, 224(1), pp. 122-131. Pino, G., Amatulli, C., De Angelis, M. and Peluso, A.M. (2016) The influence of corporate social responsibility on consumers' attitudes and intentions toward genetically modified foods: evidence from Italy, Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, pp. 2861-2869. Lin, Y. and Wu, L.Y. (2014) Exploring the role of dynamic capabilities in firm performance under the resource-based view framework, Journal of business research, 67(3), pp. 407-413. Peteraf, M., Di Stefano, G. and Verona, G. (2013) The elephant in the room of dynamic capabilities: Bringing two diverging conversations together, Strategic Management Journal, 34(12), pp. 1389-1410.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
We live in a time where entrepreneurship is finally a focus of a significant number of colleges and universities, and is even reaching into high schools. The question I have is: why has it taken so long for schools to recognize the importance of, and start teaching, students about entrepreneurship? I am proud to say that I learned a lot from my Entrepreneurship subject specially when you start a business you must start small and end more profit. And specially when Sir Abog said that when you start a business we must have first a business planning execution is where the money is at. Write something short, sweet and to the point and get on with it. I always preach about my One Paragraph Start Up Plan as the best way to get started. I learned also on how Strategic partners are not always good ideas. Before you bring on anyone as a business partner, determine if truly partnering is the best option. We will write a custom essay sample on Ang pag-ibig or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Decide if alternatives such as sharing revenue or doing a joint venture are a better fit. Make sure you know everything about the person you wish to partner with, from their political backgrounds to their business ethics. And if you decide to goÃ ahead and bring on a partner, be sure to create an operating agreement that clearly states what happens in every possible outcomeÃ¢â¬âfrom a partner leaving to a partner dying. I learned also on how business growth happens in real time. I learned also, no matter how successful you are, accept that you will fail again. Failure is good. It will be your guide to smarter, better decisions. The faster you realize that your business will never be perfect and there is no such thing as smooth sailing, youll grow as a leader as a result. Learned also practice strategic thinking not planning. The best plans can be made obsolete in a minute. I learned also that Entrepreneurship majors learn how to build, promote, and manage their own businesses. They also learn how to apply their creativity and energy to make existing businesses more productive. Learned on how nearly all entrepreneurship programs will require you to take a class in developing a business plan the backbone behind any idea. Your plan will discuss your dream business, your goals, and how you plan to achieve them. A plan will show other professionals how good your idea really is. It will also come in handy when you go looking for money to get started. Banks and investors will want to see it before handing over the funds. I realized that if high schools focused on entrepreneurship, freedom would rule the campus. Entrepreneurship gives students, adults, and even children the ability to express themselves. It would give us the opportunity to see how brilliant young minds really can be and the types of ideas, visions, and goals they have. High school entrepreneurship promotes students to focus less on curriculum and more on their passions, which makes the learning experience fun and far more engaging. By focusing on entrepreneurship, students would truly have the option to pursue their dreams. Passion would be the driving force behind what the reality of a future career or advanced education would mean. High schools would be a place to foster creativity and interest, giving students the opportunity to take action and responsibility for creating their future. I learned also what are Business practices about general business practices that are recommended in maintaining the appropriate accountability structure. I learned also on how to cooked Special Bihon, how to sale into the costumers, how to be a good and nice to the costumers. Entrepreneurship subject helps me how to be a future Entrepreneurship soon , helps to learned Business economic development to our country. Learned also what are the 8 consumers rights like Right to Basic Needs, Right to Safety, Right to Information, Right to Choose, Right to Representation, Right to Redress, Right to Consumer Education, and the last Right to a Healthy Environment. Actually I learned a lot in our Entrepreneurship subject and I am thankfull of our beloved teachers Mr. Marjun Abog and also Dr. Lita Ladera-Jomoc for teaching us on how to be a good Entrepreneurship.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Theodore Roosevelt Essays - United States, Schuyler Family Theodore Roosevelt THEODORE ROOSEVELT Theodore Roosevelt was more than just the 26th president of the United States. He was a writer, historian, explorer, big-game hunter, soldier, conservationist, ranchman and Nobel Peace Prize winner. It is not surprising that his life was known as The Strenuous Life. Theodore was born into a wealthy and socially prominent New York family in 1858. Although with a quick mind he was not blessed with a strong body. He suffered from life-threatening asthma attacks throughout his childhood. Spurred on by his father, Theodore began to build up his body by strenuous exercise, and by adulthood he had become a model of physical courage and toughness. Early Political Life. As a young man Roosevelt decided on a dual career; law and politics. At the time, New York politics was dominated by men involved in machine politics. Yet he persisted in getting to know and understand them, while at the same time attending Columbia Law School. Eventually he secured the friendship of a man named Joe Murray who was able to get him nominated as a 21st District State Republican Assemblyman. Together, with Murray's contacts and knowledge of machine politics and his own family and social connections, Roosevelt was able to easily win the election. He was 23 and in Albany. Theodore served three terms in the New York Assembly. Roosevelt was a delegate to the Republican convention, and as a matter of principle he vigorously opposed the leading candidates - James G. Blaine and President Arthur. Roosevelt supported a reformer, Senator George F. Edmunds. In the end Blaine won the nomination, and this put Roosevelt in a difficult position. He did not believe that Blaine was honest, yet if he followed the example of other progressives and did not support him he realized he would be through in the Republican party. He supported Blaine. When Blaine lost Theodore received no political position, and his political career was over. Ranchman Roosevelt not only suffered political defeat in 1884 but deeply personal defeats as well. On the same day both his mother and wife died. These disappointments led to a radical change in Roosevelt's life. He decided to move to the Dakota Badlands to become a rancher. At the time many people thought that this was a good way to become rich. The Dakotas were not like the East - life could be a little wild and woolly. Resolution of disputes was done at the end of a gun, and thieves were often hanged as soon as they were caught. Roosevelt excelled at this rough and tumble way of life and earned the respect and devotion of the men around him. Roosevelt, however, did not excel at making money. He lost about half of his entire capital in ranching. But what he gained was, in the long run, of much greater value. The men he met there were to later join the famous Rough Riders whose exploits were the major impetus to his political success. In 1886 Roosevelt returned to New York to marry a childhood friend - Edith Carow. Together they had a very successful marriage and produced five children in addition to Alice, Roosevelt's child by his first marriage. Politics was still the place that Roosevelt wanted to be, but there were not many opportunities since his party was out of power. In order to support his family Roosevelt spent his time writing. This was not a new vocation for Roosevelt. Equally at home hunting for a book as hunting for a bear he wrote his first book The Naval War of 1812 while in law school and running for the New York Assembly. By the end of his life he had written and published dozens of books. Reformer In 1888 Roosevelt saw his chance to jump back into politics by campaigning for the election of Benjamin Harrison. When Harrison won he appointed Roosevelt to be a Civil Service Commissioner. It was with this job and later as Police Commissioner that Roosevelt made his reputation as a reformer. At the time both the Civil Service and the New York Police Department had serious corruption problems. Roosevelt did his best to clean up the corruption and make things work fairly. For
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Greek Mythology Assignment - Research Paper Example He evidently does not see their humanity and spiritual value, presenting their stories as embroidery on male tales. It is the thesis of this paper that female characters in the Iliad are like trophies, and what they do or say does not affect what happens in any important way. Trophies are awarded for accomplishments and they attest to the competence of the person to whom they were awarded. Trophies are motivators of competition between opponents or groups of opponents. Trophies are useful as launching pads for bragging. Trophies indicate that the trophy holder is a winner, but they give no assessment of how much skill was demonstrated or what the criteria was. Trophies can give a biased picture of the trophy-holder as more than what he/she actually is. Trophies can also become an annoying distraction as they require dusting and polishing, arranging and protecting, all the requirements of object management. Some people buy themselves trophies, so they will look and feel more important and powerful than they really are. Trophies can arouse jealousy in others who have no recognized accomplishments. Trophies come in various levels of quality. Although they usually look elegant, and most often come with a pedestal, some are of a more fragile nature while othe rs last well. Trophies are usually placed in a designated area, such as an enclosed cabinet, a wall of shelves with other trophies, or on a bookcase, and they are kept there in one place, being viewed from a single perspective. These characteristics of trophies, their place and use, apply to the IliadÃ¢â¬â¢s women too. Helen was a top quality trophy. She was intelligent, expressive, self-motivated in spite of tremendous restraints. She was a hated foreigner, inadvertently responsible for the Trojan War and a lot of suffering. She is a captive, possessed object. Being a possessed object was par for the course in the time of the Iliad.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Executive degree program. Admission - Essay Example So having an executive degree will benefit me and my career and it will develop my management skills as the second or first man in the embassy sometimes who will take care of all the financial and Consular Affairs related to the embassy. My professional goal involves attaining a prestigious position within a reputed organization and drawing a lucrative salary for my work. Also my professional framework would include organizing symposia, conferences, study circles and scientific gatherings; and taking part in overseas or internal conferences, meetings, and symposia appropriate to the aims of the institute. Thus an Executive degree program have been opted by me that will help me to develop the decision making skills and interpersonal skills within myself. (172) 2 What professional achievement are you most proud of? Please be as specific as you can. Being an accountant who works for the diplomatic firm, I would be proud to serve my organization at every difficult situation. Ministry of foreign affairs (where I work) is not 100% a profit organization and here we donÃ¢â¬â¢t deal with client. Here we take care of the financial and consular related matters of the embassy. Therefore I will feel proud to provide every kind of service necessary for operating the foreign affairs ministry, which would include handling the financial and banking affairs, investment, foreign trade, framing the budget for the country, maintaining the currency balance, and abiding by the laws of the country. These services would further include cooperating with the government agencies, ministries, public utility, and public authorities and private establishments in the nation in line with the goals of the institute. Further my achievements would involve providing consultation to the ministries, government agencies, public utility and public authorities, private establishments in the nation in line with the duties of the institute, training and preparing the ministry's personnel to handle inte rnational relations, consular and diplomatic work and contributing to the groundwork of diplomats and all staff of the ministry with the necessary proficiency and practical and theoretical capabilities through instructive and training structure and exceptional capabilities development curriculum. Thus my professional achievement would include completion of all the above functions successfully. (222) 3 Please describe a situation where you failed to reach a professional objective or goal, and what you learned from this experience. As an accountant, it is very important to keep track of the exchanged data. Along with keeping track of the data, it is necessary to keep the data updated and communicated. During a budget session a few months back, I failed to communicate the senior managers about the certain changes incorporated within the budget, which happened due to a sudden change of the foreign economic conditions. When the change was communicated later on, my seniors told me that it is a very significant task for an accountant to keep the records updated and inform everyone about the update, who is involved in preparing the budget. Thus from this experience I learnt that data depends on certain market forces and whenever changes take place within those forces, it must be immediately disseminated among all the staff related to the budget. Again it is necessary to gather all the data related to a task and then filtering those data and selecting the essential ones for the purpose of preparing the budget. (169) 4 How do you think you are perceived by colleagues? You can mention 3 strengths and 3 areas for improvement.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Examine the value of planning given the History of Urban Development in the US from the 19th century onwards - Essay Example The planning is still on, and the American towns and cities continue to exhibit noteworthy and extensive growth. All American cities exhibit high degrees of marvelous design in the way they appear and how they function. Most of the present-day cities started by being centers of particular reasons. Some began as trade centers while others started as storage and manufacture centers. Some cities also started as agriculture and market centers where produce from surrounding lands was kept. In the history of the US also, some cities began at the junctions of large transport routes such as large rivers, ocean ports or large roads. Therefore, it can be shown that most of these cities were planned for. At the time, for example, the leaders of the people decided on the towns that were market centers or those that were administrative centers. This illustrates massive planning over time in the growth of cities. At the start of the 19th century, most of the cities were planned in such a way that they provided protection in times of war. City walls were constructed in such a way that when there was war, the rural populace would hide behind the walls. This was a time when warfare was common in the land. Such walls required massive innovation and planning so that they would serve their purpose.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Lady Chatterleys Lover by D. H. Lawrence | Book Report The novel Lady Chatterleys Lover begins by introducing the female protagonist, Constance Chatterley. She was brought up as a bohemian of the upper-middle class, and at 23, she marries Clifford Chatterley, an aristocrat. After their honeymoon, he is sent to war, and returns paralysed from the waist down, impotent. Clifford grows to be an accomplished writer, and many academic men frequently gather at the Chatterleys mansion. The intellectuals turn out to be vacant and seem scared of true feelings, and Connie feels increasingly secluded. She resorts to a short and disappointing affair a writer who comes to visit Clifford. The distance between Connie and Clifford increases as Clifford withdraws into his hollow pursuit of writing and coal-mining. Connie hires a nurse, Mrs. Bolton, to take care of the disabled Clifford so that she can gain freedom, and Clifford begins to depend on the nurse; his maturity waning into an infantile dependence. Connie meets Oliver Mellors, the aloof and contemptuous gamekeeper on Cliffords estate and is attracted to his natural sensuality. She soon discovers that the source of her misery is from not being fulfilled in physical love and passion, and subsequently turns to Mellors. They meet and have sex on several occasions and she has a sexual awakening that changes her thoughts forever. Mellors old wife, Bertha returns and causes a scandal, whilst Connie believes that she is pregnant with Mellors child. Clifford refuses to give Connie a divorce. The novel ends with Mellors waiting for his divorce, and Connie living with her sister, hoping that they will be together. Lady Chatterleys Lover lies in a paradox: it is progressive and intransigent, contemporary and Victorian. It displays Victorian principles, yet it gives the impression that it is expecting the social ethics of the late 20th century in its blunt use of overt profanity. The structure is conservative, following the characters over a set period of time. The characters have a tendency to symbolize a type and be something of a concept, rather than developing authentic traits. This seems to say that Lawrence uses them as allegories to demonstrate his values of sensuality and his irritation with society. The themes of sexual identities and sexual progression are quite common in this novel and each character embodies these ideas. Connie is a woman who grew up to appreciate the sensual and passionate side of a relationship. Her father, Sir Malcolm, told her that it is no good living in an intellectual relationship without sensuality, just as Connie has with Clifford. Her father is in touch with both his imaginative and corporeal sides; Lawrence connects conservative with nonconforming sexual customs. This mix could well be argued as Lawrences ideal, as well as Connies. She is a woman who idealises the thought of cohesion between the body and mind, and cannot live a life with Ã¢â¬Ëall mind. At first she wants intellectual love, then she wants sexual fulfilment, then she wants a child to love and nurture. Constance (ironically named) is always changing her mind on what it is that will complete and satisfy her in life. I think this is a good example of sexual progression as she only cha nges her mind after learning what more she could gain from a relationship to make her feel like a woman. We learn about the vicious relationship between Mellors and his wife Bertha, who angered him by being sexually aggressive and not tender enough. Through Berthas Ã¢â¬Ëfault (according to Mellors negative opinion of this), Lawrence seems to be praising submissiveness in women; he appreciates women who allow themselves to be receptors to masculine authority. In essence, satisfaction for a woman is achieved through succumbing to the male. Berthas sexually controlling characteristic hints at feminism she wants to take control of her own pleasure and be sexual when and how she wants. She might have been portrayed differently if the book had been written today. In spite of all of this, his approach to the conventions of sex and the roles of men and women hardly seem progressive. Tommy Dukes, a visiting writer, says that the physical and intellectual cant work together and that men and women have lost their glamour to each other. He seems to be a character that Lawrence believes has the right ideals, recognising the significance of physical love as a fundamental way for men and women to connect intellectually. Ã¢â¬ËReal knowledge comes out of the whole corpus of the consciousness; out of your belly and your penis as much as out of your brain and mind. The mind can only analyse and rationalise.' Despite this, he is indifferent about everything he preaches. His theories are pointless without substance and action, and it is as though he does not really believe what he says without practise. He has an inability to go beyond words and seems sexually frigid. It is at the beginning of chapter 6 that it is almost impossible to take Dukes thoughts and emotions as his own. His words overlap heavily with the message of the story: passion is unable to coexist with an intellectual connection. Ã¢â¬ËA woman wants you to like her and talk to her, and at the same time love her and desire her; and it seems to me the two things are mutually exclusive.' There is an obvious distinction between Tommy Dukes, with his well-intended but worthless talk on love, and the gamekeeper Mellors, behind whose cold disguise there is an overflow of tenderness and passion. They are polar opposites that reveal different sexual identities Connie faces. Clifford Chatterley is a man who is disconnected from his environment and from other people. He cannot empathise with the workers in his coal mines, seeing them more as cogs in his industry than as men. The paradox is that Clifford also grows to be a servant of his industry, debauching himself in return for success. Clifford also values technology (his sudden interest in the coal mining/working-class community) and the success of his writing over the relationship he has with his wife. He is unable to procreate and he seems to disregard this fact with his intellect by justifying every bodily sensation intellectually. Had he been virile, Connie may not have indulged herself in the newfound excitement of Mellors, but the fact that he is not supplies the most obvious symbol of changing sexual identities in the 20th century the dilemma of the Ã¢â¬Ëredundant man. It is though his injury in the war has also spoilt his heart. His writings (according to Connie) seem utterly deprived of meaning. I feel that he acts as a figurative character as much as he does as a real character because his physical disability and his lack of sensuality reflect a deeper limitation and emptiness much like post-war England. This is especially highlighted when he and Connie take a walk outside of Wragby. They go from an intellectual chasm to the remnants of an unspoiled, blooming English countryside where Mellors first comes into view. He stands for the earthy, pastoral England, and seems completely mismatched with Clifford and the impassive men who gather together at Wragby. Clifford only begins to think seriously about the local villages and about the coal mines in which the local men work when Mrs. Bolton gossips to him about local affairs. This seems to point out that he needs an authoritative hand to push him in the Ã¢â¬Ëright direction, even if its just to think seriously about something classed as a masculine occupation. It is ironic that the person to spur him into revitalising the dying local coal industry is a woman. The fact that Clifford grants Connie permission to have sex with another man for an heir surely shows that he is not sexually attached to his wife, and his using this authority over her actually shows what little masculinity there is of him left. It is an ironic and seemingly unconscious struggle for him to demonstrate typically masculine traits whilst impotent. He reasons that sex would not be important or comparable to his and Connies marriage. This, I believe, is one of his biggest faults of transgression as it shows just how differently he regards physical contact, compared to his wife. There is also the complex relationship that grows between Clifford and Mrs. Bolton after Connie has left. Her husband used to work in one of Clifford Chatterleys mines before he was killed and Mrs. Bolton begrudges Clifford for this, though she sustains a respectful manner towards him as she is delighted by her contact with the upper-class. Clifford depends upon her, but scorns her; she is a servant to him, but is also in charge of him, for he is, by himself, helpless. Even though their association is always a master-servant relationship; it begins to take the shape of a perverse mother-child relationship as a result of Cliffords total reliance upon Mrs. Bolton. I think that this is one of the most intricate and mesmerising relationships of the book. The novel constantly shows the contrast between the body and mind by using Connie and Mellors disappointing relationships as examples. Constance is stuck in a relationship with her husband who is Ã¢â¬Ëall mind and Mellors old wife was too domineering for Mellors to feel masculine. Connie and Mellors are forced to learn more about the coalition of both the mind and body; Connie learns that sex is more than just an Ã¢â¬Ëaccident' and a disappointing act, and Mellors discovers the emotional changes that come from physical love. To summarise, Lady Chatterleys Lover dips into an array of themes which shows how culturally sound it is in the world we live in. It exposes people of all dispositions and fancies and illustrates how relationships between such people form and break. It is a complex book with a concurrent message: the body without the mind is wild, and the mind without the body is empty.  D. H. Lawrence, Lady Chatterleys Lover (Ware: Wordsworth Editions Ltd, 2005), p.30.  Lawrence, Lady Chatterleys Lover, p. 46.  Lawrence, Lady Chatterleys Lover, p. 8.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The Pit and the Pendulum: Movie vs. Book The movie "The pit and the Pendulum" was nothing at all like the book. The movie started out as a man walked along the ocean to enter a huge castle. His sister had moved there when she married Dom Madena, but now she was dead. The castle was used to torture Catholics during the Inquisition. Dom Madena believes that the castle has an atmosphere of torture thick with death, and that led to the death of his sister. The doctor said she died of fright. They buried her in a tomb below the castle. As child Dom Madena saw his father torture and kill his father's brother and his own wife. He accused them of adultery. His father didn't torture his mother to death, he buried her alive. Dom Madena thought that he buried his wife alive. Then one night someone was playing the harpsichord just like his wife did. Another time a servant heard his wife whispering to her. Then one night someone trashed her room. Dom Madena, also called Nicholas, heard his wife calling him. He went through a secret passageway until he entered the room of all the torturing devices. He goes to his wife grave, which they dug up to prove she was dead, and she popped out of her grave. She chased him through the dungeon until they met with the doctor. Then Nicholas fainted, and his wife, who never really died, told him that it was all scheme. She and the doctor were having an affair. He chased the doctor and he fell into a pit and died...
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Ozymandias was a powerful king, who ruled with an iron fist. Lines 4 and 5, Ã¢â¬Å"Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frownÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"And wrinkled lip and sneer of cold commandÃ¢â¬ shows that Ozymandias ruled with contempt, dominance and conceit. He was a very unhappy man, not forthcoming or humble in any way, as a true king should be. He was however, filled with pride and arrogance. Lines 10 and 11, Ã¢â¬Å"My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings: Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!Ã¢â¬ depicts his pride and vanity. The manner in which these lines are written, in the first voice, as if Ozymandias himself is telling us of his importance, one last time. In these 2 lines, he is boasting about all his accomplishments, wealth and successes, which accompanied being a king. These lines show that he believed that he was the greatest, and none superior to him. Ã¢â¬Å"Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frownÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And wrinkled lip and sneer of cold commandÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Tell that its sculptor well those passions readÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless thingsÃ¢â¬ The sculptor clearly showed Ozymandias personality and passions on his statue. Even though Ozymandias thought his would rule forever, everything becomes lifeless with time. And the manner in which he ruled was clearly shown on his half decayed and dismantled statue. Human ambition will only take you that far, itÃ¢â¬â¢s what you leave behind that truly matters. The words Ã¢â¬Å"passionsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"lifelessÃ¢â¬ are placed close together, because your passions and desires are supposed to keep you alive and happy, yet OzymandiasÃ¢â¬â¢ passions of despair survived on a lifeless statue. Ã¢â¬Å"The hand that mocked them and the heart that fedÃ¢â¬ . From what I can tell, the sculptor disapproved of the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s way of ruling and ridiculed him, but yet he had to create him in stone to be remembered by all. The irony concerning lines 10 and 11 is that Ozymandias will not be remembered as aÃ great leader and king. What he believed himself to be will not be engraved in his followers, on the contrary, they would probably want him forgotten and his statue left in ruins. A statue is usually a monument erected in honour of a great leader of merit, but Ozymandias was a monument of fear and oppression. The poet is displaying a picture of dry and barren land in the desert. A half sunken body or head decapitated from its legs lying in the sand. There is nothing around these dismantled pieces, nothing for miles. The word Ã¢â¬Å"antiqueÃ¢â¬ to me, suggests old, ancient and maybe dilapidated. The poet also uses many words that evidently illustrate brokenness and deterioration like Ã¢â¬Å"trunkless legsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"shattered visageÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"frownÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"wrinkled lipÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"cold commandÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"surviveÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"lifeless thingsÃ¢â¬ ,Ã¢â¬ despairÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"nothing beside remainsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"decayÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"colossal wreckÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"boundless and bareÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"loneÃ¢â¬ . Lines 12, 13 and 14 portray the degeneration and despair clearly. Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing beside remains, round the decayÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Of the colossal wreck, boundless and bareÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The lone and level sands stretch far awayÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"boundless and bareÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"lone and levelÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"sands stretchÃ¢â¬ Using alliteration in these lines creates and increases the effect of what the poet is saying. It also adds emphasis on the description of the land and on what remains of the mighty Ozymandias. It allows a clear picture and the irony of the end of Ozymandias legacy.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Diocletian and Constantine Essays Diocletian and Constantine Paper Diocletian and Constantine Paper Essay Topic: History Around the year AD300, the Roman Empire was huge; it stretched from Northumberland to the Red Sea. However, the population was not evenly spread. There was a sign of decrease. There are many reasons for this: natural disasters (e. g. plague, famine). Civil wars broke out, barbarians were attacking, there was a constant need for money for imperial uses and the emperors were frequently changing. During these years, the two most important and successful emperors that attempted to solve these problems were Diocletian and Constantine. What was unusual about Diocletian was that he remained securely in power for 21 years. Diocletian s first move was to exalt the person of the emperor (himself), hoping that the throne would be safer. He wanted himself to be worshiped and praised like a god. He recruited barbarians into the army; this solved some of the problems caused by them. Diocletian was a very clever man, whenever he thought that there might be danger, not only from the barbarians but also from the discontented soldiers, he would move to another place where he thought it might be safe. Diocletian also decided that the empire was too big to be governed by one man. Therefore, he divided it into two. He appointed a fellow soldier to govern the western half while he took charge of the eastern. He then subdivided the parts for two assistants. During his throne, he also stabilised and fixed wages and kept prices steady. He called in worthless money and issued a new gold coin called an aureus. Although he was successful during his reign, but when he retired, the empire fell apart again because a civil war broke out. The civil war raged for 18 years, until one of the claimants, having destroyed his rivals and reunited the divided empire and ruled alone. He was Constantine. In AD 306, Constantine became the emperor of the Roman Empire. He had been aware if the problems caused by the Christians, and he knew that torturing and killing them won t solve the problem and would tare the emperor apart. So, one of the greatest things he did to stop the civil wars was to change Christianity from being a forbidden religion into an honoured and protected faith. He had also built walls and war gallery patrols to improve the defence. In AD 330, he found the new capital of the Roman emperor, Constantinople. It took around 5 years to build. What was really strange about Constantine is that he only got baptized when he was lying in bed dying in AD 337, he believed that it would wash off the sins and the bad things he had done. Although Constantine was more successful than Diocletian, but the peace only lasted for 50 years after he died. But they were both very successful in their lifetime.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Magnesium Oxide Lab Report Essays Magnesium Oxide Lab Report Paper Magnesium Oxide Lab Report Paper The duration of this experiment it is a must to wear safety glasses and lab coat at all times during the lab, even when not working directly with the chemicals r apparatus. 2. Do not touch the apparatus, during the experiment it may still be which further can lead to burns. 3. Be careful around the Bunsen burner, even when switched off they may still be hot! 4. Do not inhale the magnesium ribbon. 5. Do not touch the magnesium ribbon. 6. Always wash your hands thoroughly before and after handling any chemicals. Procedure: 1 . Record the mass of a clean, dry crucible with its lid. Handle the crucible with tongs, not your fingers, to avoid moisture and oil from your fingers being transferred. ) 2. Use fine sand paper to scrape the oxide coating from the surface f a strip of magnesium ribbon approximately 2 CM length. Cut the ribbon into small pieces, place in the crucible, and weigh the crucible, its lid and contents. 3. Heat the crucible in a hot flame for 10 minutes, ensuring that th e magnesium is exposed to air but that no solid escapes. After this time the magnesium should have been converted too white powder. 4. On the electronic balance there maybe leftover substance or tiny materials accounting for total weight of the crucible with magnesium ribbon inside the crucible, with the lid on it Qualitative Observations: Magnesium Qualitative Observations (Not the actual photos of the experiment) Before Heating During Heating After Heating Color Metallic Orange Flame White Light **at different duration of the experiment** White Powder Appearance Shiny thin sheet of ribbon, with an dark grey line in the middle. The magnesium ribbon starts to transform from a shiny metallic color to a white color. Cracks are observed in the white magnesium powder. Data Processing Presentation: Processed Data table The mass of magnesium is deduced by subtracting the mass of the crucible and the lid from the mass of the crucible and the lid with magnesium in the crucible before the heating process. Average of mass of magnesium: Crucible + Lid + Magnesium) ? (Crucible + Lid) Average of mass of magnesium 0. 036Ã ± 0. Egg The mass of oxygen is deduced by subtracting before heating total mass of the crucible and the lid with magnesium in the crucible from the after heating process total mass of the crucible and the lid magnesium in the crucible before the heating process. Average of mass of magnesium = 0. 02 grams Conclusion Evaluation: Conclusion: Evaluation: = 00000 x 100 Random error is an error in measurement caused by factors that vary from one measurement to another. When the crucible was weighed with the lid and with r without the substances, we should of kept the same person weigh to keep a constant circumstance and methods used during the experiment and the electronic balancer should be kept the same, to reduce any random error by changing the electronic balancer. Repeat measurements during experiments, to reduce random error enough to get a normal distribution. Mean values will be close to the actual value, which helps reduce random error. Systematic error is where something has gone wrong with the measuring device or method. To reduce systematic error we should apply the correct methods and be thorough tit the procedure for the experiment, be aware requirements of the lab and take precaution during the lab with methods applied during the experiment. To determine systematic error it most obvious in a graph within outlier in the graph. Outlier represents the systematic error. In this case if I were to determine a systematic error during the lab I would consider making a graph which would represent the data collected during the experiment. I should keep these systematic and random errors in my mind when conducting my next experiment to stop these errors to occur again in the experiment.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Evaluate the Significance of Imperfect Competition Models for Explaining the Pattern of International Trade - Essay Example This type of market does not operate under the rules of perfect competition. In this type of market structure, a firm has the ability to affect the prices. In spite of being close substitutes, the products can be differentiated and advertising and branding plays a major role in this type of market. A large number of sellers exist in the market. The market structure is characterized by freedom of entry and exit. Monopolistic competition and oligopoly constitute the structure of imperfect competition. Firms that are imperfectly competitive offer many products. The products are offered at administered prices. The price changes are costly and slower. The prime prediction of the theory of monopolistic competition is that firms will produce at the level where marginal cost equals marginal revenue in the short run. However in the long run, the firms will operate at zero profit levels and the demand curve will be tangential to the average total cost curve. Intra Industry Trade Situation wher e there is exchange of similar products between similar industries is referred to as intra industry trade. This is a very common term in international trade where imports and exports of similar product take place. The three types of intra industry trade include trade between goods that are homogeneous, trade between horizontally and vertically differentiated goods. Consider the KrugmanÃ¢â¬â¢s model of monopolistic competition. This model helps to explain intra industry trade by using economies of scale as experienced by production, products that can be differentiated and heterogeneous preferences between and within countries. The sum of fixed cost and variable cost is the total cost of the firm. Therefore, C= F+cX, where F is the fixed cost, c is the constant marginal cost and cx is the variable cost. So, average cost, AC= F/X+c The demand curve faced by the monopolistically competitive firms is downward sloping. Profit is maximized at the level where marginal revenue equals margi nal cost. The equation of the demand curve faced by a monopolistically competitive firm is X= S[1/n-b(P-Pavg)] Where X= sales of the firm, S= total sales of the industry, n= number of firms participating in the industry, P=price charged by each firm, Pavg=average price charged by each firm, b=parameter of MR. A typical firm that charges the price greater than Pavg, is likely to enjoy smaller share of the market. Another assumption is that S is not affected by P. This refers to the situation where competition in price will simply redistribute the share of the market without increasing the total sales. To determine the market equilibrium, firms are assumed to be symmetric. The demand and cost functions are the same for all firms. An upward sloping relationship is said to exist between the number of firms and average cost of any firm. A downward sloping relationship is said to exist between the number of firms and price charged by each firm. In equilibrium, P=Pavg as all firms are assu med to be symmetric. The demand curve is X=S/n, and AC=nF/S+c. The demand curve can be rewritten as X=(S/n+SbPavg)-SbP where the bracketed term is the intercept and Sb is the slope. Then the marginal revenue is P-X/Sb. MR=MC, therefore, P-X/Sb=c or, P=c+X/Sb. But each firm charges the same price, then, P=v+1/bn. (Cashel, n.d., p. 1). The long run equilibrium takes place where P=AC. This model can be used now to derive the implications of international trade. International trade is
Friday, November 1, 2019
The design for how mobile social media tackle with Bangor university Chinese undergraduate student's career issues - Research Proposal Example The large number of the students compounds the manifestation of the problems that students from other countries face in new societies. Integration is a vital process in the development of students in institutions of higher education. Group studies are vital learning techniques that lecturers use in ensuring that students develop holistically, the Chinese students among other students from different cultures face challenges trying to integrate with the rest in their bid to participate in the groups. Participation of the Chinese students thus remains limited to the social and cultural factors that inhibit their socialization. The use of mobile phones coupled with the advent of social media on the other hand has provided the Chinese students with several opportunities to facilitate both their learning and integration in the college. Among the common mobile social media that students use in the college, include Facebook, Twitter and Instagram among many others. The social media provide the students with virtual groups. The selection of friends and the development of friends and networks in the social media relies on the likes and preferences that the students exhibit. This implies that a student easily selects friends with whom they share several values. Among the values the students consider in the development of their networks include similarity in career options and similarity in cultures. Additionally, the students readily interact with other students willing to assist them settle in the new society. The mobile social media thus help the students develop into holistic scholars who can interact with others in the society thereby adopt to their new environment. In a summary, the cultural difference presents myriad challenges to foreign students at the Bangor University key among whom are the Chinese students. The University must investigate the trend with the view of providing solutions to some of the challenges that the research seeks to
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
None - Assignment Example As matter of fact, the Hindu community must have moved from somewhere. Secondly, Hindu religion traces its origin sometime just before the onset of modernization (Bryant, & Patton, 2005). Notably, the timing of the start of Hinduism and Aryan migration rhyme; supporting the AIT arguments. Moreover, the immigration is assumed to consist of different ethnic groups who after settling united to make a common language and culture. Every theory must be criticized by at least one scholar given that people make different opinions. The critics of AIT are not strong enough to question its viability. For instance, the Aryan inversion theory is based on existence of dead bodies found in a cave (Bryant, & Patton, 2005). However, there is no precise evidence that these bodies were massacred, hence terming the whole theory a weak critique. Though, its not clear whether the Aryans found natives in the region, no invasion evidence exists either. Moreover, the invasion theory was meant to protect colonizers. Culture and social setups differ and may sometimes irritate. Public relations advocate for understanding and accommodating every personÃ¢â¬â¢s culture in order to coexist. However, the understanding ought to be two-way, otherwise one party will be humiliated. Non- western cultures are complicated. To me Japanese culture irritates. Though the shame culture has build their reputation, consulting before their tribesmen before making any decision irritates. Secondly, treating strangers with excess suspicion retards their socializing
Monday, October 28, 2019
Samara Aziz 20th century drama coursework Essay We see how Catherine has an open relationship with her father figure by the way in which she talks and acts around him, but this could be what attracts Eddie to her. Catherine is a very nai ve person. She is a young minded and obviously unaware of her blossoming sexuality. As the play continues, we see Catherine demonstrating a certain closeness to Rodolpho. Now if we take a look at Rodolphos character, we see how he is very different to other men. We see how he likes to sing, dance and make clothes. All these in the 1950s were seen as very feminine but due to Catherines simple intellect she doesnt realise this. All she sees is how he has a very open mind and entertaining character. She is captivated by his charm. We will now look at a conversation between Eddie and Beatrice about Catherine and Rodolpho. Eddie She tell you anything? Beatrice Whats the matter with you? Hes a nice kid what do you want from him? Eddie Thats a nice kid? He gives me the heeby jeebies. Beatrice Ah, go on, youre just jealous. This conversation between Eddie and Beatrice is one of the first signs, which show how Eddie disapproves of Rodolpho. He also talks about him with little respect. But a question to consider, is does Eddie dislike Rodolpho because of the fondness which is growing between him and Catherine or because he is unsure of his own feelings for Rodolpho? Dramatic tension begins to arise between Eddie and Rodolpho as we progress through the play. Maybe because Rodolpho is enforcing Eddie to think about his own feminine side. This, however, could be frustrating Eddie, because of the fact that he is confused about his feelings. Beatrice also plays a part as she feels how her relationship with Eddie is rather dry. Eddie Why? What worries you got? Beatrice When am I gonna be a wife again? Eddie I aint been feeling too good. They bother me since they came. We see Beatrice asking Eddie when shes going to be wife again or in other words when their sexual relationship is going to bloom. This shows tension between the two characters as we see them both feeling very uncomfortable with each. I would stage right, while Beatrice is stood directly in front of him, but the two characters would avoid looking straight at each other. The narrator in this play also has the role of a character, which makes him different to other narrators. His role changes from narrator to the lawyer, Alfieri. As a character, Alfieri listens and gives advice to Eddie. He slips from being a narrator to a character. Here we see a conversation between Alfieri and Eddie. Alfieri But, Eddie, shes a woman now. Eddie Hes stealing her from me! Alfieri She wants to get married Eddie she cant marry you, can she? Here we see a heated conversation about Catherine and the fact that Eddie is unhappy about her marrying Rodolpho. Alfieri listens to Eddie but also tells him what he thinks. As a narrator, the story is told through flashbacks pointing out major elements of the play such as the beginning paragraph in Act 2. Alfieri On the twenty-third of that December a case of Scotch whisky slipped from a net while being unloaded The narrator uses precise language to make sure the audience understand. A very clear description is given. If you looked into the narrators character I would describe his as a kind of a symbol of fate as he is watching down on all the characters. If I were to stage the narrator, Id stage him visible, behind the set, on a bridge, looking down on all of the characters. This symbolises the view from the bridge. By using the thought of the bridge, Miller is applying imagery, as the view from the bridge is the narrators view from the bridge, or, societys view from the bridge. I think that the role of the narrator in A View from the Bridge is very effective in expressing the authors concerns as the narrator covers a variety of different aspects, both socially and moralistically. Miller has shown us that as well as telling the story, the narrator can also take over a number of other roles. I think this is a very good device, which Arthur Miller has used and succeeded in doing so. The symbolism and imagery is also variably used to portray certain images, which are used to help picture the scene, such as the bridge. I think Arthur Miller has put a great amount of thought into this play with which he has proved that he can produce to satisfy the audience. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Arthur Miller section.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
The Handmaid's Tale: A Biblical Allusion Imagine a country where choice is not a choice. Ã One is labeled by their age and economical status. Ã The deep red cloaks, the blue embroidered dresses, and the pinstriped attire are all uniforms to define a person's standing in society. Ã To be judged, not by beauty or personality or talents, but by the ability to procreate instead. To not believe in the Puritan religion is certain death. Ã To read or write is to die. Ã This definition is found to be true in the book, The Handmaid's Tale (1986) by Margaret Atwood. Ã It is a heartbreaking story of one young woman and her transformation into the Gilead society, the society described above. In the book, we meet Offred, the narrator of the story. Ã This story is not the first to create a society in which the only two important beliefs in a society are the ability to procreate and a strict belief in God. Ã It is seen several times in the Old Testament, the Bible. Ã The Biblical society is not as rigid as the Republic o f Gilead, which Margaret Atwood has built, but it is very similar. Ã The Handmaid's Tale holds several biblical allusions. The first biblical allusion is that of the Republic of Gilead. Ã Gilead is mentioned several times in the Bible as a place of fertile lands. Ã The Bible states, "To the east [the Israelites] occupied the land. . . , because their livestock had increased in Gilead" (Numbers 32:1, NIV) and "The [tribes], who led very large herds and flocks, saw that the lands of Jazer and Gilead were suitable for livestock" (1 Chronicles 5:9, NIV). Ã The Biblical land of Gilead was a land of prospering livestock. Ã Families and tribes came to Gilead because of the land's lush, green and fertile soil. Ã The Republic of Gilead was also... ...n individual, but each person is noticed only by the clothing that they wear. Imagine a country where the husband is the head of the family, and no other members of the household hold any rights at all. Ã Imagine a country where reading and writing are crimes punishable by death. Ã One can imagine, but no one can comprehend the pain and suffering and emotional death that one must acquire to live in a society such as the Republic of Gilead. This story of the future may very well be a story of the past; a story based upon principles found in the Bible, but taken so literally and enforced so strictly that the country becomes a theocracy to hate. Bibliography Atwood, Margaret. The Handmaid's Tale. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1986. The NIV Study Bible. Barker, Kenneth: General Editor. Grand Rapids, Michigan: The Zondervan Corporation, 1995
Thursday, October 24, 2019
2) Biogeography is one source of evidence that evolution accounts for the diversity of life. Biogeography is the study of the geographic distribution of species and has contributed evidence for descent from common ancestors, which was hypothesized by Charles Darwin. Darwin and Alfred Wallace were both very interested in biogeography, which provided Darwin with evidence for evolution. Species distribution can be accounted for by ecological factors or by historical factors. The three major historical factors affecting geographic distribution are dispersal, extinction and vicariance. Island biogeography has been extensively studied to show the evolution of species due to geographic barriers. Biogeography along with the history of the earth lends supporting evidence to evolution and the diversity of life on earth. Darwin showed that biogeographic facts make sense if a species has a definite site of origin, achieves a broader distribution by dispersal, and becomes modified giving rise to descendent species in the regions in which it migrates. He noticed that unrelated organisms inhabit parts of the world with similar climates and habitats, such as Old and New World organisms. Darwin also found that organisms of various regions may be different due to barriers or obstacles that may limit migration. He also stated that there is a relation between inhabitants of the same continent or sea but that species differ from place to place. An example of this is aquatic rodents of South America are related to mountainous and grassland rodents of South America, but not to aquatic rodents of North America. Alfred Wallace noticed that several higher taxa had similar distributions and that the composition of biota is more uniform within certain regions then between them. He had collected specimens in the Malay Archipelago and had thought of natural selection. He did extensive field work in the Amazon and noticed that geographic barriers, such as the Amazon River itself, separated the ranges of closely related species. These observations led him to designate several biogeographic realms. He observed that the fauna of Australia and Asia were different and the break between them is known as the Wallace Line. Historical factors affecting geographic distributions of species include extinction, dispersal, and vicariance. Extinction of certain opulations reduces the distribution of species but it also allows for diversification. Extinctions are selective in that some species are more likely to survive then others. For example, gastropods with wide geographic and ecological distributions and those with many species survived the end-Permian extinction. Extinction can lead to diversification in that it resets the stage for evolutionary radiations, perhaps by p ermitting the appearance of new community structures. Futuyma suggests that the extinction of one group permits the efflorescence of others, which is also shown in the fossil record. Dispersal and vicariance are the major hypotheses attributing to a taxonÃ¢â¬â¢s distribution. An example of vicarance is taxa that have members on different land masses in the Southern Hemisphere, which is hypothesized to be due to the breakup of Gondwanaland isolating descendents of common ancestors. America, Africa, Madagascar, and India are all home to the freshwater fishes, cichlids. Molecular phylogenetic analyses has shown that two sister clades of cichlids have been found, one consisting of Madagascan and Indian species, and the other of two monophyletic groups, one in Africa and one in South America. However, the splits between the clades are more recent than the breakup of Gondwanaland which suggests that perhaps the cichlids achieved their distribution by dispersal. Both vicariance and dispersal could be the likely cause of the geographic distribution of cichlids. Species expand their ranges by dispersal which is a critical process for geographic isolation in evolution and the current geographic distributions. Most species are restricted to certain biogeographic realms by their dispersal ability but many species have expanded their range due to human transplant. For example, the European starling has expanded in North America following its introduction into New York City in 1896 (Futuyma, 2005). Transplanted species may disrupt the ecosystem at its new location by evolving and adapting to the new environment, possibly causing the extinction of native species. Adaptation to the environment as a primary product of evolution was suggested by Jean Baptiste Lamarck who believed that evolution is the best explanation of the diversity of life. Vicariance is the separation of populations of a widespread species by barriers arising from changes in climate, geology, or habitat. Vicariance can lead to speciation if populations are separated by a geographic barrier and evolve genetic reproductive isolation such that if the barrier disappears, the species can no longer interbreed. Natural selection is a powerful evolutionary force and therefore the genetic changes that result in reproductive isolation in vicariant speciation are likely due to adaptive evolution. Several geological processes can fragment a population into two, such as a mountain range emerging, rivers, lakes, or land bridges. Island biogeography is a very good example of evidence for evolution. Islands are generally where endemic species of plants and animals are found but Darwin observed that most island species are closely related to species from the nearest mainland or neighbouring island. Two islands that have similar environments in different parts of the world are populated by species that are taxonomically affiliated with the plants and animals of the nearest mainland which generally has a different environment. Speciation may occur on islands if a species that disperses from a mainland to an island succeeds in its new environment and gives rise to several new species as populations spread to other islands. Once isolated, geographically separated populations become genetically differentiated as a result of mutation and other processes such as natural selection. Environmental factors are likely to be different from one place to another so natural selection can contribute to geographic variation, differences in the gene pool between populations. Speciation is often a gradual process as the reproductive barriers between the groups is only partial in the beginning but leads to complete reproduction separation (Campbell and Reece, 2002). An example of vicariance and island biogeography is the finches on the Galapagos Islands. Darwin noticed that the finches he collected from the islands were very similar, but that they were in fact different species. Some were unique to individual islands, while other species were distributed on two or more islands that were close together. New finch species had arisen from an ancestral form by the gradual accumulation of adaptations to a different environment. For example, the different beak sizes of the finches are adapted to the specific food available to them on their home island. This is an example of species adapting and evolving to suit their new environment. The Hawaiian Islands are another example of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s showcase of evolution and island biogeography. Each island started bare but was gradually populated by species that either rode ocean currents or blew over in the wind, either from distant islands or continents. The physical diversity of each island provides many different environmental opportunities for evolutionary divergence by natural selection. Many of the plants and animals that are currently found on the islands are found nowhere else in the world, they are endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago (Campbell and Reece, 2002). The history of earth also helps to explain the current geographic distribution of species. For example, the emergence of volcanic islands such as the Galapagos opens new environments for species to inhabit and adaptive radiation fills many of the available niches with new species. On a global scale, continental drift is a major factor correlated with the spatial distribution of life and with such evolutionary episodes as mass extinctions followed by increases in biological diversity. The continents drift about earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface on plates of crust floating on the hot mantle and their positions can therefore change relative to one another. At the end of the Paleozoic era, plate movements brought all the landmasses together into a super continent named Pangaea. Species that had been evolving in isolation were brought together at this point and forced to compete. The formation of Pangea reduced shoreline, drained shallow coastal areas, changed the climate and increased the area inland destroying a considerable amount of habitat and reshaping biodiversity. During the Mesozoic, Pangaea broke apart creating new continents that became separate evolutionary areas allowing flora and fauna to diverge. The diversity of life on earth is due to millions of years of evolution. Darwin and Wallace were both important figures in the field of biogeography as their interest and research led to ideas that are still apparent today. Historical geographic factors and the history of the earth are a few aspects that have led to current biodiversity. Biogeography shows compelling evidence that species evolve through natural selection by adapting to new environments. Speciation will continue to occur as the environment changes and as the continents continue to drift. References: Campbell, N. A, and Reece, J. B. 2002. Biology; Sixth Edition. Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco. Futuyma, D. J. 2005. Evolution. Sinauer Associates Inc. , Massachusetts.