Thursday, February 28, 2019

Management and Leadership Essay

Management and leadership are considered synonymous, but in truth they are two different words. Management is delimit as, The art, manner or pr spielice of managing, handling supervision or control whereas leadership is defined as, The ability to express a vision, influence others to achieve results, encourage group cooperation, and be an example. Leadership is getting others to want to do things. Leadership is intimately tied up with motivating and influencing others.Managers are administrators who write business plans, deal budgets, monitor progress, solve problems and facilitate meetings. A coach achieves government agency and localize through experience, understanding, sentence and committal. Managers stomach subordinates but a leader has followers. A leader privy be a manager, but a manager is not necessarily a leader. The leader of the work group whitethorn emerge in testisly as the choice of the group. If a manager is satisfactory to influence great deal to achie ve the goals of the organization, without using his or her formal authority to do so, then the manager is demonstrating leadership.As put by Faye construct ton, The only safe ship in a storm is leadership. organizational brotherlyizationAccording to Websters new-fangled Collegiate Dictionary nicety is the integrated specimen of human behavior that includes thought, speech, action, and artifacts and depends on mans capacity for skill and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations.Organization market-gardening is a carcass of shared beliefs and determine that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its memebers .It includes routine, behaviors, norms, dominant values and a recovering or climate conveyed..The pupose and function of this socialisation is to care foster internal integration, bring staff members from only levels of the organization overmuch closer together and enhance their performance.A conjunctions culture determines a lot of t he organizations behavior. A culture may be toilsome (having a dramatic influence over an individual(a)s behavior) or weak (having a relatively low rival on behavior).A strong culture is a coherent set of beliefs, values, assumptions, and practices embraced by most members of the organization. It fosters motive, commitment, identity, solidarity, and sameness, which, in turn, facilitates internal integration and coordination.An understanding of organizational culture and how to transform it is crucially important for managers and leaders to achieve strategic outcomes. The power of strategic leaders in an organization assists them to see the dynamics of their organizational culture and attain the essence of strategic victory through unequivocal transformation.Effective managers recognize that replacing a long term culture of traditional values with one that embodies the competitive values require in the future support take years. But the bribes of that effort will be an orga nization much more effective and responsive to its milieual challenges and opportunities.(Bateman & Snell, 2007)Organizational Culture at southwesterly Airlines souwest Airlines was founded in 1971 as a low-cost regional air carrier. The comp boths mission stated on its website really reflects its compulsive and healthy organizational culture.We are committed to provide our Employees a stable work environment with equal opportunity for cultivation and individual(prenominal) growth. Creativity and innovation are encouraged for improving the effectiveness of southwesterly Airlines. Above all, Employees will be provided the same concern, respect, and caring attitude within the organization that they are expected to share externally with every southwestern United States Customer.sou-west Airlines has consistently been successful in terms of profitability, good employee and coalescency relations, and customer rejoicing at a time when most airway carriers are struggling in all these areas.Central to the companys success is a culture of flexibility, family-orientation, and fun. They believe in, The way you treat and reward employees is one part of your companys culture. Culture is the companys way of life. It is how the business functions, operates, handles stress and reinforces its staff. It is the companys oecumenic attitude toward the world. southwestern United States has built a reputation as a fun, light-hearted and irreverent airline with a happy staff. It is said that Southwests biggest hiring criterion is whether an applicant smiles during his or her interview. Southwest feels it can train anyone to do the line of reasoning, but it cannot teach a person to have a positive attitude. Southwest Airlines has recognized that smiling staff members canhandle nix issues skillfully and still satisfy their customers.Southwest is also identified as the early leader of worker responsibility. The company limits emphasis on the formal organizational structur e. At Southwest, decision making is the process which is done by anxiety/worker committees. Leadership meetings are taped and shared with employees. The researchers learned that productivity could be maximized when employees felt as though their needs were be considered by receiving attention for their work. This phenomenon became know as the Hawthorne Effect.It is as true immediately as it was during the last century that paying attention to our human assets produces dread(a) results. Southwest Airlines has learned to capitalize on the principles of the Hawthorne Effect. Southwest Airlines has consistently remained at the top of its industry, while placing a rigorous focus on employees feedback and needs. Southwest seeks to share the companys success with its employees. The airline achieved high levels of employee satisfaction and was included in the Fortune magazines list of the degree Celsius Best Companies to Work for in America for three years in a row.Southwests no-layof f response to September 11 was a reminder to its employees of the organizations tradition of caring for its people. When asked to comment on this, an official explained, Its part of our culture. Weve always said well do whatever we can to take care of our people. So thats what weve tried to do. Many analysts feel that the remarkable performance of Southwest is beca use of its ability to build and sustain relationships characterized by shared goals, shared knowledge and mutual respect between employees. Southwests organizational culture was shaped by Kellehers leadership. Kellehers personality had a strong influence on the culture of Southwest, which symbolizes his spontaneity, skill and competitiveness. Southwests culture had three themes love, fun and skill. Kelleher treated all the employees as a lovely and loving family.Southwest attempts to promote a close-knit, supportive and enduring family-like culture. The Company initiated various measures to foster intimacy and simplici ty among employees. Southwest encouraged its people toconduct business in a loving manner. Employees are expected to care about people and act in ways that affirm their dignity and worth. Instead of decorating the wall of its furnish with paintings, the company hung photographs of its employees taking part at company events, news clippings, letters, articles and advertisements.Southwests organizational culture encourages employees to be innovative, to communicate, understand and care, be given over to customer service and most importantly to be an Individual. It maintains its success imputable to employee education, much of which takes place in Southwest Airlines festive learning cracker the University for People. Southwest sees learning as a never-ending process. University for People trainers, known as facilitators, build a foundation for an ongoing learning environment through a supervisory leadership class called Leadership Southwest Style, which utilizes the Myers-Briggs Typ e Indicator (MBTI) assessment for self-importance discovery.At Southwest Airlines, instruction wants employees to feel comfortable, reflecting its philosophy that an employee who is comfortable can think more freely and creatively. Regular celebrations bring employees together. These include Spirit Parties, Culture parties, and weekly blow up Parties at headquarters. Activities at these events include talent shows, dance contests, limbo contests, karaoke, and famed person look-alike themes. The Culture Committee welcomes new employees with a New Hire Welcome Kit, which includes a bag, tee-shirt, badge holder, pen, and welcome letter. Southwest Airlines is an thin example of social invention that helps people discover their true capabilities.The social environment combines humor with responsibility. Employees work in teams without outside supervision. At job interviews, along with other self-development attitude, the prospective employee must show a sensory faculty of humor. Th e company recognizes the key to its culture is The Spirit of LUV. Their commitment to hire people with the capacity to love and serve others has yielded a bountiful harvest of loyalty and money. Hence it shows a very well combination of caution and leadership. appoint concepts of organizational culture at Southwest AirlinesEncourage to assume willpowerHire for lifeTrust their decisionsGive employeesimmediate access to overcritical information.They have the power to make adjustments and to fix significant problems quickly.Results achieved through these conceptsOn-time arrivals, straightlaced baggage handling, and customer complaints are communicated on a weekly basis.Everyone is pore on customer service and making Southwest a success which allows them to expand outside of assigned responsibilitiesStrategies that organizational managers and leaders can use to create and maintain healthy organizational cultureMotivation Management Leaders must have coaching skills, not control sk ills. Motivated people have goals and seek ways to achieve them. Efficiency is the result of motivated employees. The self motivated employees assume responsibility for their tasks. It creates an environment where workers trust management and management trust workers.Continuous Learning Opportunity Motivation is associated with the desire to learn. Without it, motivation dies. Most businesses operate with a wide knowledge gap between worker and management. All through history this has been the policy, it is job security for leadership. Today, efficiency requires workers to assume responsibility and this requires the narrowing of the knowledge gap. This is achieved by empowering workers.A strong organizational culture and an approach to learning that encompasses more than just dressing classes can create an organization that learns and improves upon its past successes. When change occurs, organizations with a learning culture and a focus on organizational development can surpass ev en their own expectations.ConclusionTo sum up, leadership is essentially think to a persons skills, abilities and scope of influence and management is a theory and a way of doing business. The managers who truly exercise the four functions of management planning, organizing, leading and controlling, to accomplish their organizational goals are also true leadersAs time and requirements ofan organization change, there is always a need to change managerial functions. Managers at all levels must anticipate and adapt to changes.In any ordinary but expanding organization the next future change efficacy be to restructure the organization. Technology is bringing a change in leadership styles. The command-and-control leadership methods of the last century are extremely incompetent in the fast changing technology world. Motivating environments are needed on the front-line with people who assume responsibility and exercise leadership. To attract and life this type of person, the work envir onment must inspire and exploit employee capabilities.ReferencesBateman, doubting Thomas S. & Snell Scott A. (2007). Management Leading and collaborating in acompetitive world. (Seventh edition), Ch-2 & 12 pgs 66- 69 & 393-383Southwest Airline webpage. Retrieved on April 20, 2007 from www.southwestairlines.comSouthwest Airlines. Retrieved on April 19, 2007 from www.caseplace.orgFrazee, Bonnie (Nov, 2006).Organizational Behavior and the Learning Process. Retrieved onApril19, 2007 from www.innovativelearning.com

Linking benefit and pay and to competitive advantage

For companies to be fitting to give their vanquish and build up high quality goodishs and services they require to have a achievement force which is of high juicy, their productivity is mostly based on approximately few aspect such a pay and benefit and competitory advantages. As companies/ square face still competition to control the food market whatever management of these companies atomic number 18 coming up with ideas to please their employee and correspond them in their unfaltering. All firms require these three things. Some have glossy benefits others are reassessing their presss numerous package are fund education, elderly dread , health concern for employee family, walk institutionalise for their employee, rewarding the most productive employee and providing houses for their employees.Fund educationSome companies encourage their employee to further their studies and climb up the ladder in the keep political party. This is do in order to increase emplo yee companionship in what he/she handle in the order. Its to a fault done in order to increase the productiveness of a employee.Elderly careAs most companies face stiff competition service and good, many firms are starting a package to cater for their employee who have since retired and are in their late ages. This is done in order for an employee to be roll up to concentrate on his duties and give their best in that play along. Company which offer these services passs mostly to out d other s who do non have such kind of services in their operation.wellness care for their immediate familyWhere an employee is required to leave his place of fashion and go to take his immediate member of family to a hospital, whatsoever companies are shimmy this wastage of epoch by introducing health care services to their employee not only if saves time the service bequeath to a fault save the employee money as he/she does not need to spend anything in the hospital as his company will set tle the bills.Offer transport for their employeeFirm will buy buses which are used to ferry their employee from their residence to their place of guide on this is done in order to be bale to save to time which they could have used to go and tactile property for other essence of transport and thus reporting to work late or already fatigue and thus been unable to puddle more(prenominal) for the company. In some firm every employee is dropped at his/her door and thus save companies and also employee time. recognize the most productive employeeIn most firms an employee who produces more in the firm is mostly rewarded by the management this is done in such forth that the productiveness of employee is perused, where by a firm provide a asker where every employee fills the questioner with the guidance of the management.Providing houses to employeeIn area where the employee comes from a furthest distance the firm provide houses for their employee where the employer do not want th eir employee to liquidate time they are provided with a house where they resides together with their family. Its also done in order for a company to be able to know that their employees are safe.ResultsCompanies which have the above described services to their employee tend to have high production and do correct than other who does not have any benefit / free-enterprise(a) advantage.Messer. M (2006) Benefits Gian a competitive edge with offerings employers want strategic finance 88.no5, 8, and 10Competition for experient accounting and finance professional increase cheek are aspect for ways to give themselves an edge way top help, a proletarian achieve a intermit work life balance this is by reservation the worker comfortableness in his work and also in his life among the benefits is over time work and companies that offer facilities such as health care or similar effort demonstrate commission to personal to their employees.They use various ways such as sharpening the lear nings of the employee,Sharpening of readinessThis is done by the company sending employee to school to increase their skill in the company. This effect is felt by the company in their production. inclose where an employee is kept comfortable by the company he tends to produce more in turn of return. A company input can fructify the employee out put this is determined oh how committed is the company to its employees. Company and employee digress widely. In order for a company to perform effectively its moldiness know who to hire, retain nature and develop its employees.The trouble is the employee effective studies appearance that the best and the academically brightest are more likely to leave a firm. This is the best are mostly not comfortable either by the working condition or the workers pay and benefits and thus they are track down by other companies which have better conditio0n and benefits. A company may use the benefits to increase its employee morale and retaining and a ttracting employees it can also use benefits to forbear employee attitude and increase their performance. Such benefit includes race growth or a mentor in a firm.Career growthThis is whereby the company can take its employee to school in order for them to acquire tonic skill for the company. This makes the employee to feel that the company owns them and thus give all the best to the company. What is eventful in any company is the employee and their status a important factor any company to keep its clients and its business knowing its given over into it .its capability to recruit, retain and develop its employees.In most countries in the leash world many workforces will join many companies with a look of giving their best into the company will be determined by company interest in strengthening and restructuring the employee profession. Those different employees will look different in most companies, some will be challenged by the rumination given by the company and advance the ir career with the cypher of crimping the ladder and also for a better pay. Some will not work with the referenced company for long due to been unable to suit to the company, other will go to better paying companies, provide better working condition have good package.Many employee do not take a company as a place to work for over five years they gauge their stray on some aspect its understood that many employee in the res publica are more likely to leave seeking better working condition and other rumination.In some companies they have developed ways of tapping the promising employee by promoting him over the ladder, they also encourage them to go to school and advance their career in order for them to climb the ladder of promotion and get better pay thus encouraging them to work with the said company. Companies should at least look into employees policies under which they work.Schwartz B,R,Wurtzel J, Olson L attracting and retaining teachers organization for a economic cooperati on and development. The OECD commentator no261.27-28In each and every company all workers slopped requires some readiness. In order for them to be able to produce for the company this means they have to asses the work of the company what is expected of them and their aims/goals.IntroductionFor example some company creates a week in the company calendar for rigorous training and also introduction. This enables the employee to be able to produce what is expected of him. It also expects to minimize time loss in the company. To develop a company to be able to produce more and have effective employees a company is supposed to match the productiveness of an employee. In some company they provide a questioner which every new and old employee fills, it offer each week this is aimed at direct correspondence between the directors and employee. In order one to known the weakness and strong ness of an employee. Its integrated in such a way that the directors reads the questionnaire and when they note there is inanition in one employee a special team is there to answer him.Some firm share workshop with other firm this is to date that an employee can learn from the other employee of another firm other organization organize for departmental workshop this sharpens an employee and also he /she get to visualise what he does not understand . This is aimed at putting them with the high execute employee and low performing employee to effective knowledge.One common thing is that good employee is an advantage to the company in which a company can be able to produce more and employee can learn from one another. keep and retaining employees makes them feel that they are part of that company thus they work with all their strength knowing that they will be in that company for a long period. In each and every form when making a policies one should address pay and potential for company / domain growth.In many countries most in third world country worker5 policies are becoming a b it tough to the worker and many people are resulting for self- employment a company should come up with way to reward the employee i.e. by paying more for one who produce more. This is linking pay and benefit to competitive advantage.T. H Koen,Wang C,J.2005 Benefits offer an advantage a firm productivity ?an empirical examination personnel review 34no4.,393,512SummaryThis is explaining or suggesting that employee benefits have a moderate effect on firm productivity, irrespective of industry or firm size.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

“Poor People would be better off if they had fewer children to feed and clothe”. Essay

forgetful mickle would be better off if they had slight children to feed and cut back.The competency of the pathetic in rearing children will always be a nonion of concern in every society, notably in the Caribbean region. Sadly, we stand from different economic and social developmental issues which dates plunk for as remote to the issuing of independence from our colonial states with the exception of some French Caribbean countries much(prenominal)(prenominal) as Martinique, Guadeloupe, St. Martin and British Virgin Islands. However, most countries be plagued with the demon of unemployment address of the fluctuating economy in the world at large and in the west. Most countries overly suffer from brain drain jumper cable back to the slow economy . For each society to be in force(p)ly studied, unmatched has to go beyond the surface and dissect the situation, as cells atomic number 18 to the corpse so are community to the society/ country that we live in, thus t he importance of population studies in finding out issues that plague the society, just leading us to the topic of discussion and evaluation today which is Poor large number would be better off if they had fewer children to feed and clothe.There is no doubt in my mind that this statement is thus factual. Poor by definition means having little or no m unrivaledy, goods or means of support. Therefore if i was ugly and I had slight(prenominal) dependents to worry about I would be better off having fewer children to feed and change state, and if I should take the liberty of drawing your imagination to the cosmos of having the responsibility to alike send multiple children to school and provide them with expert advancements poor peck are 120% better off if they had less responsibility. The rich however, do not suffer from the aches of having too much children or too little because in essence they can survive this prosecute . For this notion of response, the writer will be dra wing knowledge from the Malthusian theory and also the Neo Malthusian and Marxist theory , that for now let us focus a bit on the Mathus ideology and how effective it is on the evaluation of the population growth and trends.doubting Thomas Malthus, the founder of this theory postulates that if the population continues to grow rapidly, then the effects would be detrimental, he channeliseed this out in his famous treatise. He states that the population increases in geometric proportions ( 2, 4, 6, 8) while the food resources available for them wouldonly increase arithmetic onlyy i.e 1, 2,3 in simple words if the human population was allowed to increase at a faster rate than the food supply , a point would come when food sources couldnt support the growing population. Malthus in his mentation doubted the ingenuity of mankind and technology and even though his theory is not exactly wrong it doesnt necessarily fit the Caribbean perspective. Food and clothes are available yes, but do we all have the peachy to purchase these goods to make life comfortable? Further leading us to thinking of Karl Marx who is hell bent on that it is the inequality of the ruling club that causes poverty, malnutrition, detestation and hunger. This would be solved if fair opportunities were given to other people and not only those with wealth running through their veins this theory fits in to the Caribbean society today. The ruling would be the politicians and those who are apart of big organizations.These are the people whose children are better off in life and they also receive heavy wages and they perform less taxing work. Compared to the center(a) class and lower workers, who work for such unfair wages. Thus leading to the underdevelopment of the impoverished and certain population trends such as the heavy migration levels in each country. This further leads to the loss of human development because the people who put up their home countries for better job opportunities and imp rovements in living standards leave a gap in the society which the government has to fill, costing more. The issue of crime and deviance in the society can be related to having poor back grounds and broken homes, especially juvenile delinquency. The writer took it upon herself to appraise these implications and to the extent at which they are true and I came across a family in my community who can be considered as poor. This family living in one 2 bedroom house, with an outside bathroom and kitchen has 35 people living in it. In this family there are 2 people over 60 years old , their 4 children and their childrens many a(prenominal) children. Each child has no less than 5 children and to add all of them are without fathers, as they have refused to take up their responsibilities.It is sad to plead that these sisters have not obtained an education higher than a secondary level, and so they are virtually unemployed with the exception of one sister who is a domestic jocker. They a re also living without electricity and running water. We were asked to quantify the population in relation to development. How exactly development is possible when environin situation such as these? In most cases such as these, the children like the ones in my community will end up leaving school and history will repeat itself, other situations such as deviant behavior and teenage pregnancy will also spiral out of control leading to an ineffective society integral of stagnant individuals, who will just eventually weigh the economic trunk down , increase in tax to support welfare systems, a low GDP rate, increase in criminal activities and even incorrect deaths. The wellness care of these less fortunate are also at stake.As individuals how can we stop the ongoing misery of an overpopulated society, crime and deviance, wellness care deficiencies, brain drain , hunger and the rhetorical cycle of unemployment? wellspring there are several organization which seeks to relief the poo r such as UNICEF and Food for the poor , who are always present when cancel disasters( hurricanes , earthquakes, volcanoes) wreaks havoc in countries , orphanages and in the case of dire needs and physically challenged. In Jamaica there is also the PATH program which was instituted to help children who are going to school, students on this program receive a monthly stipend, health care and lunch at school, a big help to most. in like manner , if they excel academically , they are awarded scholarships to continue their territory education . forthwith back to Malthus, who has his solution which takes the form of moral restraint.The usage of using lineage control methods ( contraceptives/ condoms) or just simply abstaining from sexual activity until one is ready emotionally and economically , getting married older, spacing children and having less children. These methods when combined will curve the growing population and create more productive individuals, the poor would be able to take advantage of the help they are receiving and they will then be able to get an effective job which will help them to become less dependent on the society to take care of them, thus poor people would be better off because in essence they wouldnt be poor again.

Early Childhood Education: Child Protection Essay

Every small fry has the in force(p) to a full and productive life. Under the national cloth for Protecting Australias Children (2009), cheering electric s birthrren is everyones responsibility P arnts, communities, governments and businesses all hold a lineament to breeze. Childrens benefits have an important pop out to play in protecting fryren who whitethorn be at try of hurt or illness. Educators have a duty of care to protect and preserve the safety, health and upbeat of all nipperren in their care and essential always act in their best interests.Policies have been developed at a local, state and federal level to provide a al-Qaeda for improving and maintaining the safety and wellbeing of Australias young people. The purpose of this circulate is to analyse sextet of these policies effectively fostering childrens wellness at a physical and emotional level. The policies have been sourced from, and are underpinned by the quest policies and legislation ? A local early childhood kindergarten and long mean solar day care centre function policies ? The Children, Youth and Families coif (2005) ?National modeling for Protecting Australias Children (2009) ?The Childrens function Act (1996) ? aborigine heathenish Competence Framework (2008) Values that underpin these policies Each of the six policies selected specifically addresses educator interest and is a key facet of the service, state and federal indemnity and legislation. Collectively the policies attend to and interpret issues of childrens safety, stability and increment. In other words, when polity development was occurring due consideration and value was precondition to child safety, stability of relationships in a stable environment, child development, and child health and wellbeing.These dimensions of safety, stability, development and wellbeing are understood in the mise en scene of whom the child is that is their age and stage, identity and their cultivation. These element s concerning the identity of the child are primordial to two of the six policies. The Aboriginal heathen Competence Framework and solar day and Nights childcare and Kindergarten (DNCK) service Diversity and right policy reflect a strong sense of social justice, fairness and equity, and furthermore are apologize from prejudice.They both value the child as a whole, advocating for all childrens rights. It is not a question of being politically correct save rather respecting the unique identity of separately and every child. Similarly spokesperson 1. 2- principles The decision makers to have regard to principles of the Children, Youth and Families Act 2005, place hearty value to protecting and promoting the ethnical and spiritual identity of children, and whenever possible, maintaining and building childrens friendships to their family and community.As advocated for in the earlier years Learning Framework, well-educated where and with whom you belong (identity, stability, an d wellbeing) is integral to human existence (2009). Focusing more on childrens wellbeing, that is the childs physical and emotional wellbeing, the DNCK Child protection policy and the Child protection policy sourced from Protecting the safety and wellbeing of children and young people, reinforce and accentuate that all children need stable, sensitive, simulating relationships and environments in rescript to reach their full potential.The nucleus of both policies is the child and in bon ton to see to the need of the child each policy has placed a well- appointed and substantial value on the role of educators, stating the role of staff member in childrens function is to protect, nurture, recognise and support the needs of children in their care (Protecting the safety and wellbeing of children and young people, 2010, p19). Educators have an honorable responsibility and a duty of care to see that this is done. Furthermore drug-addicted teachers (Degree qualified or higher) are mandated, therefore are legally obligated for the care and protection of children at heart their care.In addition to this, Part 4- operating theater of childrens services of the Childrens Services Act 1996, places an emphasis on the protection of children from hazards inside the service. Legislators again place value on the role of the educator, stating, quite strongly that Staff members of a childrens service mustiness ensure that every reasonable precaution is taken to protect a child (Childrens Services Act, 1996, p27) Though the previous two policies had nutrition for the emotional wellbeing of the child, this policy places equal value to the physical wellbeing of the child.What precipitated the development of the policy? Australia began to acknow directge the existence of child protection issues during the 1960s, which led to legislative reform and Australia signing the United Nations Declaration of the rights of the child in 1981 (McCallum, 2002). In recent years there ha s been an increased sense of child protection emerging from increased incidents of child harm and ill-treatment and escalate research. During this time, policy makers and service providers have developed a greater disposition of childrens needs and have come together to bring us our current policies.Further investigation into the development of each of the six child safety/protection policies found that they are manifestations of each other. For instance without the Childrens Services Act 1996 and the Children, Youth and Families Act 2005, the DNCK child protection policy would not have been developed as now services have a legal responsibility to have current and relevant policies within their service. Moreover without the Aboriginal Cultural Competence Framework the DNCK diversity and rightfulness policy would as not have been developed to such a high standard.Who benefits/ who is disadvantaged? It is quite evident who is benefited from these policies. These mainstream children s services approaches and policies emphasise children within a holistic and ecological framework. The holistic approach direction looking at the whole child, that is, their identity, culture, community, age, development all areas within the former(a) Years Learning Framework for Australia. The holistic approach also implies that educators pull up stakesing have a community-focused and strength-based intellect of childrens welfare that necessitates previous attempts at early childhood education.In addition to this with a greater understanding to the importance of culture to a childs identity, the Aboriginal Cultural Competence Framework has provided a source where the dynamics of cultural connection can be explored. This benefits all children, including Aboriginal children and the broader community, as it represents childrens cultural needs in the following way. Childrens cultural needs are Cultural Expression and Events Language, cultural values, lore, beliefs and practices Count ry Extended family, clan and community History.Symbolic (Aboriginal Cultural Framework, 2008, p19) It is important to note that because of these six policies an increase of awareness of the needs of the child has been developed, and as such children have ? Freedom from ache and have protection from diseases ?The rights to an identity and to preserve such an identity ? The right to equal treatment regardless of gender, race or cultural range ? The right to safe exposure to leisure, play, culture and art ? Freedom from violence, abuse and neglect ?The rights to culturally competent practiceWhen asked if anyone would be disadvantaged by the implementation of these policies, the immediate response would have been no. Upon critical investigation, it was found that the educators themselves may feel disadvantaged. Though there is no provision for this within the policies, it is strongly implied that the implementation of each policy at a service level would need to be done by the childre ns carers and educators. This may expand workloads, increase the need for professional development and training, and compel educators into uneasy situations (e.g. , having to call protective services on a family they like).The applicability for agricultural setting Due to the nature of the six policies, regardless of where the service is, each would be applicable for a rural setting. All childrens services must comply with the Childrens Services Act 1996, and the Childrens Services Regulations. The primary objective of this legislation is that children are safe and that their developmental needs are met when being cared for and educated in a licensed childrens service.The Act provides for the monitoring, licensing and regulation of childrens services in Victoria, where a licensee fails to pertain their legislative obligations there a range of statutory actions that may be taken by the division (DEECD, 2010). Encouragingly the Department has a modus operandi of initiatives to su pport childrens services meet the requirements of the Act and the Regulations. Small smashing grants and resource kits are available to assist services. Furthermore professional development exit soon be delivered across Victoria on the Early Years Framework.Until the transition into the framework all childrens services pull up stakes continue to be regulated by the Childrens Services Act and the Childrens Services Regulations (DEECD, 2010). Conclusion Every child has the right to a full and productive life. The Aboriginal Cultural Framework, The service Diversity and Equity policy, The Children, Youth and Families Act, the service Child Protection Policy, the child protection policy sourced from Protecting the safety and Wellbeing of Children and Young People, and the Childrens Services Act, ensures that this will happen.It has been identified that childrens services have an important part to play in protecting children who may be at risk of harm or illness. Under these framework s, protection for childrens safety and wellbeing will one day become a natural procedure for educators. headstone policy makers have attempted to make certain that educators roles and responsibilities are well defined ensuring that this may happen. Overall each of the six policies makes provisions for childrens welfare, childrens identity, childrens wellbeing, childrens safety, childrens culture and stability.These are central concepts to Belonging, Being and Becoming, which will soon become the regulatory body for childrens services across Australia. References Murphy, M. (2011). Bacchus Marsh Childcare and Kindergarten service policies. Bacchus Marsh Victoria. Department of schooling and Early Childhood Development & Department of human Services. (2010). Protecting the safety and wellbeing of children and young people. Melbourne. Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. (2010). Publication of information. Fact sheet. Sourced 10/4/2011 www. education. vic. gov.au/ escmanagement/licensedchildservices Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. (2010). Regulations update. Childrens Services. Issue 2. Sourced 10/4/2011 http//www/eduweb. vic. gov. au/edulibrary/public/earlychildhoodregulations/regupdateapril10. pdf McCallum, F. (2002). Law, Policy, Practice Is it working for teachers in child protection. University of South Australia Victorian Government Department of Human Services. (2008). Aboriginal Cultural Competence Framework. Melbourne Vic Victorian Government. (2005). Children, Youth and Families Act 2005.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Education and Social Mobility Essay

Historic all(prenominal)y, delinquent to our post-colonial background, that of the plantation society, knowledge was only afforded to the white, upper berth class variant(prenominal)s. In order to establish and reinforce a hierarchy of power and ownership, wealthy capitalists ensured first-rate knowledge for their children, opus actively excluding members of the lower classes from this luxury. callable to the caste system, students or individuals ar stratified, where individuals from non- tralatitious discipline shed slight hazard for br other(a)ly mobility, solely due to position that students or individuals from tralatitious develops argon of much(prenominal) affectionate class, that their fortune is based on their ascribed characteristics, which hightail it outs them in a profound way. Nonetheless, it is my ingest that this is a fact, due to the differences in class and culture, students testament have varied get to to resources with regard to bringing up , and because, on that point exit be different luck for development and cordial mobility within our society.Firstly, while conducting the research on this thesis, it was found that the functionalist conjecture was not applicable, as the functionalist view studies the ways in which facts of life back up society, as such(prenominal)(prenominal), this sociological situation did not deport any of my points existence make within this research paper. However, this research proved that the main views ar back up by the Marxist conflict theory, which studies the ways in which education manages the imbalance of power in our society.Due to socioeconomic background of individuals, those from low-income backgrounds are less likely to graduate from high school, less likely to go to university and even if Comment A1 Very estimable they do graduate, they are less likely to complete university if they enrol. Consequently, the perturbation between children from the lower socioeconomi c strata and those from the marrow and upper strata tends to increase with the level of school.This relates to societal class where the higher the social class, the more than likely parents are to hold high expectations, and positively influence the child to attain a high degree of education. This suggests that schools contri onlye to educational variation, where children who are deprived by their social background when they enter school become even more disfavord as they progress by dint of school, and as such at a greater difficulty for social mobility. Comment A2 GoodThis is supported by an article taken from the Jamaica Gleaner, by contributor Michael Waul, who agrees with this notion. Students from marginalised socio-economic backgrounds, giving rise to disparate educational experiences is greatly evident in the preparatory/primary and traditionalistic/ non-traditional high-school divide. Where advance to quality education remains largely determined by societal class, a fact evident not only in the differential resources available to schools but also the background of students entering better-resourced institutions.Comment A3 What does a conflict perspective say about this issue? This helps to perpetuates historical societal surgical incisions, that of our post-colonial plantation society, where recognise those from higher social classes while placing those from lower classes at an increasing disadvantage. This results in low CXC pass rates, increasing number of high-school dropouts in regards to non-traditional high schools, therefore leading to a decrease in the number of students attending university for third education.Subsequently, with regard to primary and/or preparatory schools, a great volume of students are passing the GSAT examination however with the majority of the passes, students are world set(p) into non-traditional high school, where only a minority of students are world placed in traditional high schools. This only proves to further the division between the upper class and the lower class, while other students are placed into non- traditional schools solely because of the environment in which they live.Even though some students may excel in their examinations, due to where they reside, they are placed in schools that are close to their homes, and as a result their pass for social mobility diminishes, as they are not able to have admission fee to resources Comment A4 Issue of screening and facilities, that are available at traditional schools, and as such greatly disadvantage from the start of their education, and as such there is social inequality. This is supported from an article from the Jamaican Gleaner, by Michael Waul, noting that access to tertiary education is a difficult option for the poor.As such, indigence prevents economic freedom and choice, and so despite ones willingness, this circumvents many realities of their experience, where the poor is held in the vicious cycle of continuous poverty, and as such at a great disadvantage for social mobility for those students from non-traditional schools which are mostly individuals from the lower socioeconomic background. Another element which affects the social mobility of students from traditional school versus students from non-traditional schools is that of the neo-Marxist reproduction theory, which involves what is cognize as bring in.This involves the assignment of students according to class and basic work roles. This grouping by ability, or tracking of students, has been common in non-traditional schools. In fact, as students progress through school, they tend to take classes that ensure they will remain in the same track, where they are at a disadvantage for social mobility. So instead of promoting democracy, social mobility and equality, schools reproduce the ideology of the predominate groups in society.This is supported by theorist Pierre Bourdieu, where each individual occupies a position in a social spa ce, by his or her habit, which include tactual sensations or mannerism and also by cultural capital, where belief and mannerism are in some cultural settings, however, not in some. This is evident between the cultures of traditional schools and non-traditional school. Similarly, another aspect which affects, and illustrates my notion of the inequality of traditional school versus non-traditional schools is referred to as the hidden curriculum.This system includes values and beliefs that support the status quo, thus reinforcing the existing social hierarchy, which include the books we read and various classroom activities that we participate in. On the other hand, theorist and other individuals will disagree with my argument, and contest that students from non-traditional schools do have a great opportunity for social mobility. Others believe tracking systems does take for some mobility, and the effects of tracking depend upon the way the tracking is organised according to Gamoran. This view is supported by an article in the Jamaica Gleaner, by Micheal Waul where students in traditional schools, such as preparatory schools are not inherently more intelligent than the other students from non-traditional school. However, due to disparity in performance, what differentiates them is largely a matter of economics. This suggests that wealthier parents are better able to fund the private educate of their children in institutions which are better equipped to meet the students learning needs.Likewise, parents who omit financial support are more likely to enrol their children in the non-traditional schools, which is limited to government-provided resources. However, this is not sufficient in allowing student from non-traditional school to earn the necessary resources mandatory to be best able to perform at their maximum capacity. Contrary to this perspective, there are the rare occasions that encounter when students from non-traditional schools strive against all th e odds, and actually excel in their examination.Thus allowing them to be placed in traditional schools, which in turn provides them with the necessary resources needed to move upward on the social ladder. This is evident as I have read in the Jamaica Observer, that the top performing boy and girlfriend in the GSAT examination in 2013, are from non-traditional schools, and as such are the rare aspects. Another view, contrary to my belief, is from an article from the Jamaica Gleaner, by Robert Buddan, in which individuals from poorer or less-advantaged communities and households can achieve and while poverty hinders, as previously stated. excessively individuals from lower class society and single-parent families can achieve given good personal and institutional guidance. However, the students have to be dedicated and committed, and teachers who have confidence in each other can make up for the miss of financial support and other disadvantages which may arise. This is evident in t he case of traditional schools such as St. Georges College and Kingston College. The founders of the institutions could have established the school uptown instead of downtown, as other institutions such as Campion and Ardenne High School have done.However, they built their school downtown, and as such the founders did the opposite in all respects. The schools were established downtown, and as such opportunities were offered to great numbers from all classes in order to make education affordable. However, contrary to the beliefs of the conflict theory, the interactionist theorists believe that students from non-traditional schools can achieve social mobility. This is manageable through social interaction with peers. Due to the fact that not all upper class students are placed in traditional schools, there are the few that are placed non-traditional school.This allows a mix of social class, and as such, some children will push themselves to achieve more, to that of the standards of t he upper class. This outcomes allow students from traditional school to be able to interact with other students from upper class society, thus the student would be shaped in such a manner. This intern allows the student to gather and grasps the different cultures and values from that of the elites of society, on how to behave in our modern society, and thus become more abundant in relatingto individual from the upper class of society. This will allow them change magnitude opportunity for social mobility, due the fact that student would interact with their peers from their school, allowing them the opportunity to different aspects of the social world, and thus have a different view from that of student from non-traditional school This is evident as students from a lower socioeconomic background, when placed in a traditional school, due to interaction with other students from that school, there attitude and values gradually tend to start changing.Due to this interaction, these indi vidual strive to be similar to those higher economic background, and as such are at a greater position for social mobility. Nonetheless, it is evident that students from non-traditional school have increasing opportunity for social mobility, as our society is gradually changing, where the need for skilled labourer are becoming more necessary. It is in non-traditional school, where the more technical skills are being offered such as mechanical engineering and technical drawing.As such, these students from non-traditional schools are being offered more opportunities for social mobility, as the employment sector has become more diverse, and has changed from the past, where mostly teachers and government employees, had prominent positions for social mobility. However this has not bridged the pause in social classes in entering top level positions. In conclusion, with regards to my thesis statement, the most important sociological perspectives of this research are both the Conflict theo ry and Interactionist theory.The Functionalist theory did not support the points being made in this research, as the functionalist believe that education is equal, where my belief completely fight this view. After detailed reading and research I found that the gap between social mobility between students from traditional school versus non-traditional school have greatly decrease over the last 40 years, and now traditional school, does not necessarily ensure social mobility of it students.However, there is still a great gap present, but it is gradually becoming closer. 12/15 While the functionalist theory does not support your point, it would have been good for you to attend some of their key issues and how education reinforces social norms and thus you can then refute some claims. Very good attempt overall truly astute in your thinking and writing.

Critical thinking Essay

1. How does searing mentation affect you as a lector and writer? How can persuasion critic every last(predicate)y improve your physical composition? overcritical cerebration affects a mortal as a reader and writer in that it is essential to be open to absorb and assimilate knowledge from the environment as swell as organize virtuosos own thoughts and let out angiotensin-converting enzymeself in a wee and comprehensive manner. It is important to consider critical persuasion as being a twofold process.As a reader, whiz is able to utilize critical thinking as a barb to analyze information being taken in from the outside. Not all information is useful or truthful to a person, and critical thinking is a method of filtering out what is incomprehensible or untruthful and entrancing what is meaningful and valid. As a writer, critical thinking is used in relation to ones own personal creative thoughts, advent to subjective conclusions to the highest degree what one believes a bout the piece and expressing these beliefs through writing.Critical thinking is able to improve communitys writing in that the ideas one wants to express become central to the writing process, to develop the completed way of stating what one desires to say. It is essential to utilize critical thinking in both reading and writing, so that one is able to take in and organize the information from the external environment and make personal judgments and assertions about what one believes. All situations and experiences argon both objective and subjective, in that quite a little experience events within the context of the external world.It is important to be able to digest and process information from the external world in an unionized fashion, so that one is able to accurately describe and share ones experiences with others. 2. Read the following Discussion Question response create verbally by Owen, a fictional student. Identify areas of vagueness and ambiguity and discuss how you baron clarify the e-mail message using the writing principles addressed in the text. In the response written by Owen, the writing entitle is such(prenominal) that the reader is non able to clearly understand what is being said. at that place are instances of vagueness and ambiguity in the writing, and Owen is left appearing as if he does not truly understand what he is supposed to be writing about. For instance, Owen states that critical thinking affects him in all ways. Although this may be true, there is not enough information describing in which ways he is affected. It is important to include enough detail in writing, so that the reader is able to fully comprehend what is being claimed. Owen goes on to say that clear writing is the hardest thing in the world.Although Owen may be having obstruction with his own writing, clear writing is not the hardest thing in the world for all people. Instead of generalizing and making blanket statements, Owen should be plain and fair in sa ying that clear writing is difficult for him personally. Further on, Owen claims that critical writing is like business writing in that they both neediness a certain amount of structure, yet then claims that structure is harder. These ideas are simply uncorrelated and do not logically proceed from one another.One cannot compare two styles of writing as being connatural and then immediately state that they are dissimilar, at least not without a clear explanation and transition. Overall, Owen could improve his own writing style by paying attention to explaining himself in detail, by taking the necessity time to organize his own thoughts before writing them down. It is vital to express oneself in a clear and comprehensive manner, so that other people are able to easily understand what is being conveyed.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Democracy vs. Dictatorship Essay

There argon basically ii types of g all overnment, Democracy and Dictatorship. Democracy is a majority encounterd establishment. The origin majority rule organization formed in 400 B.C. in Athens. There argon three kinds Direct land where commonwealth directly vote in decision indirect majority rule where tribe elect representative to start out decisions, such as our Congress and Elite democracy where the rich realise decision. A dictatorship is political relation ruled by the few over the many. There atomic number 18 different kinds, such as Communism which stir basic needs of all people Monarchy where ruled by receive right Oligarchy where ruled by the few force and Fascism which is the system of government in Italy. These two types of government are totally opposite of all(prenominal) former(a) and they both adopt their advantages and disadvantages.In a democracy, people are free and they have their human right. Such as in the joined States, we have the bill of rig ht, the first ten amendments. We have license to terminology have the right to vote for our government. We also have written rule to limit our government that no one is above the law. Therefore everybody have equal opportunity to success. Moreover, democracy trend to have peaceful military group transaction, such as our President we voted for it every four years. However, there are also disadvantages in democracy. Discussion making is slow in democracy since it has to be voted on and pass through many steps. It also has weaker military during peacetime. In addition, since people have more freedom and the government non strict as dictatorship, it usually has higher crime rate and has a wider disparity between rich and poor.In dictatorship, government got their position from the military, thus they have a stronger military and have lower crime rate. Moreover, since the government has the power to make decision, it has quicker act on decision-making. Dictatorship government poten tial to provide for the basic standard of living for everybody, but yet China and Cube does a good job. The weakness for dictatorship is people have no personal freedom. The government makes all the rules and they can diverseness it as they want anytime. Beside the basic need, government not responsive for other people. And because of the strong control government, a lot of corrupt going on, people have neither opportunity nor fair justice. And when time comes to change ofgovernment, it tends to be violent and bloody because they will never give up their power in the government, therefore it will come to revolution.Democracy and dictatorship both have their advantages and disadvantages. We still can find these two types of government end-to-end the world. Even though nowadays, many countries worldwide are more trends towards to the democracy such as country in Latin America and earthen Europe. Weather you like it or not, are your choice if you want your freedom in democracy or if you want much easier to be a subject in dictatorship.

Economic Growth in Korea

The rapid harvest and developing in the newly industrialising economies (NIEs) in recent decades has been nonhing short of spectacular. Now among the worlds just to the highest degree moral force industrialised economies, the NIEs of working keen of Singapore, Taiwan Hong Kong, and to the south Korea which go forth be the focus, theme as perhaps the topper exercises of advantageful stinting development. The stinting development of sec Korea, which has been among the most rapid in the world is typical of the miracle that is the NIEs.Korea has survey far since the days it was a population of hungry rice farmers, by pursuing an industrialisation- take development commitment since 1961, which has since produced annual gross domestic product harvest-time of 8.4% per annum, second gear only to chinaw atomic number 18. The conquest of second Korea, has been identified by a subimputable of factors including the shift away from signification substitution strategies towa rds export orientated industrialisation, and the hard-hitting managing of the delivery and authoritarian rule followed by the political sympathies in order to accelerate the pace of metropolis accumulation, technical take place and geomorphological change to produce stinting growth beyond what could possibly amount in a free food market preservation.NIEs, South Korea, atomic number 18 presently recognised as export machines boasting some of the highest look at/GDP ratios in the world. Inter commonwealthal economic relations began in 1964 with the recognition of these terminal heighten of the domestic market and the ineffectiveness of pursuing substitution industrialisation strategies. As part of its new strategy for export expansion the South Korean goernment introduced new measures which included the devaluation of the won, which modifyd the competitiveness of its exports and introduced incentives designed to tune resources into export-orientated industries.Export ers were likewise supported by direct cash payments, permission to cover unconnected exchange earnings for the purchase of imports, and the exemption from virtu each(prenominal)y all import controls and tariffs. The governing in consultation with firms, set up export targets for industries as well as individual firms. These targets appe ared to assimilate puzzle outd firm demeanour and supporting this claim was from between 1961 and 1973 the volume of exports increased at an annual rate of 35% and today spread overs to consistently rank in the acme twenty trading nations.Over the last 30 years the destiny of manufactures in total exports has increased from 12% to 95%. Further more than the manufactures exported need themselves changed with more advanced products, led by electronics dominating the list of major(ip) exports and hence the importance of the Samsung and Lucky Goldstar to the Korean economy. The direction of trade has likewise changed somewhat, where South K orean exports went largely to the USA and imports came from Japan, Asian countries excluding Japan are now South Koreas major trading partners. The importance of China is also becoming of increasing significance.South Koreas economic success as noted can also be contri anded to the high levels of nest egg and investment. South Koreans save about 35% of gross national product and thus sustainable economic growth has been driven by capital stock accumulation and expanded productive capacity. Indeed some figures exhibit up to 60% of economic expansion in South Korea is a result of capital accumulation and increase infrastructure.Undoubtedly one of the most heavy rationalisations for economic success is effective government intervention. Selective government intervention has recruitd the development of new industries, many of which stir become internationally competitive and also supported and advanced the growth of the private sector. The master(prenominal) aim of the government in South Korea has been to ensure that the behaviour of individual business accorded with the ache term interest of the business class as a whole, and while applying authoritarian rule recognising when it was time to allow the market to operate on its own. Apart from the macroeconomic management, government in the NIEs mystify also sought to accelerate the pace of capital accumulation, technical progress and structural change beyond what would have resulted from laissez-faire.All NIEs pursued trade policies, supporting industrial deepening and the development of national firms with discriminating incentives to promote exports. In South Korea for example, the government gave Chaebols preferential approach path to bank loans, relying on them to develop heavy and chemical industries capable of competing internationally. Indeed four decades of industrial development inSouth Korea have been marked by what have been marked as incestuous ties between monstrous business and government. In recent times government has been hostile to the conglomerates barely the appointment of Mr Kim Suk won to the ruling party has reopened an old wound over the role of big business and politics in South Korea.The role of the Chaebols in the Korean economy was a substantial reason for Koreas success over the last 40 years. The Chaebols are the large multi-company family owned business entities which are both horizontally and vertically integrated. Examples include Samsung, Hyundai, Lucky Goldstar and Daewoo, which together study for over half the total output. The Chaebols have played a major role in the economic development of Korea. They were given preferential access to bank loans and were relied upon to develop the HCIs (as they had the resources and ability to compete in foreign markets). Indeed, the closure of the HCIs drive marked the most rapid expansion of the Chaebols.The Chaebols engaged in fierce and even ruthless controversy with one another on the many fronts of i ndustry, with at least 4 or 5 competitors in each industry, which all contributed to the economic expansion of the economy.The government in South Korea, as well as other NIEs has supported a applied science policy. By providing a favourable tax surroundings, government has indirectly promote business research and development uptake. The Korean government for example grants a tax credit equal to 10% of capital expenditures. Current policies are aimed at achieving a 5% share of research and development expenditure in total GNP by 2001. The government has also aided fundamental technological development in advanced materials, advanced vehicle technology, bio materials and nuclear reactors.The role of the government in South Korea was also to hand over these financial incentives to promote the development of particular industries. Interest Rates for example were kept generally low and stable in order to lower the cost of investment. Designated industries received priority in all ocation of bank credit, domain investment funds and foreign exchange, The government in South Korea by choice distorted prices and incentives as to improve the market outcome and accelerate economic growth.The government in South Korea also actively pursued contestation policies. This intervention works both ways. In other words argument policy restricted the competition or promoted competition policy in the areas depending on the circumstances. In South Korea the government granted exemptions to conglomerates from laws governing monopolistic practices. Competition policy has been married with industry policy. In this the role of government has been limited with government policy interacting with the competitive strategies of private firms.Governments in the NIEs have been remarkably stable. This has had obvious benefits on the economy. There is no standard normal for government in the NIEs and there are differences between them across nations. Singapore for example has a pate rnalistic government whilst Hong Kong is essentially laissez-faire perceptual constancy is the only real link between governments of the NIEs.As the South Korean economy reached a more mature stage of economic growth fusss regarding the structural change in the economy began to surface. The agricultural sector in South Korea for example is now only a third of its passe-partout size. Most notably there has been a marked shift to the tertiary sector. There has been obvious problems and challenges resulting from this.Most notably rapid growth has brought about labour shortages in key sectors such as electronics, heavy machinery and shipbuilding. such shortage of labour in which employers have noone to fill vacancies made by expanded productive capacity will threaten South Koreas booming exports, which is seen as the vehicle for growth in South Korea. The problem is further compounded by an increasing reluctance among school leavers to mirky their hands in industry and the inabili ty and unwillingness to attract foreign labour.After growth and development in South Korea for so keen-sighted was driven by government intervention one of the most important challenges facing the matured economy was for the government to relinquish much of its influence over the economy and to allow market forces to operate effectively. If South Korea is to continue to growing as a truly advanced industrialised nation then obviously the market mechanism will have to be let to operate freely. This will take time and cause and also cause relative social unrest.As the South Korean economy has reached a mature stage, it has recognised the old regulatory environment that led to high levels of inputs especially in manufacturing sectors but low levels of productivity must(prenominal) change. In manufacturing, Korea has massively invested in the best available technology but because of protectionism and poor corporate governance in banks and companies, it was not forced to adopt the best managerial practices. As a result labour and capital productivity are in most manufacturing sectors less that 50% of US levels and thus must be one of the challenges for future success of the Korean economy.Other challenges that Korea has had to face, continues to face, and must overcome are the consistent current forecast deficits (CADs) and foreign debt which may put a constraint on South Koreas future economic performance. South Koreas economy relies to a great extent on high exports and thus is susceptible to global fluctuations. Secondly there is a pressing need in South Korea to use imports more efficiently.Furthermore, the greatest of the challenges Korea has had to face to date was the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997. Up to this point in time many economists looked favorably upon the economic fundamentals of Korea. However, due to supernumerary short term debt over the long term debts, excess debt over equity and the generating of wealth through asset price bubbles, which was all the way unsustainable, these vulnerabilities only required a small shock which was initiated by the devaluation of the Siamese baht in July 1997.As an advanced economy, South Korea now needs far more than simply hard work and determination to break through in this new century, Companies in South Korea need to keep leading of the profound social, economic and political transition. It is the inherent need for human capital that drives much of South Koreas business and government spending. Many would tote up that a well educated workforce is paramount to future success.In the future, South Korea will need to reform its financial sector, remove the incubus of excessive business regulation, turn in a more favourable environment for foreign investment and restructure its economy away from declining manufacturing and agricultural industries towards work and sophisticated manufacturing.The prospects for continued economic growth hinge on the success of the aforementioned d rivers for economic growth. Deregulating services in addition to dark barriers to imports, allowing FDI (which can reduce the risks of future financial crisis in the medium and long term) and improving corporate governance would be the key to restoring strong growth in Korea. This reduction would come mainly because fair competition with best practice together with more careful bankers and demanding shareholders would force Korean manufacturers to improve their return their return on investments. In an increasingly globalised economy higher(prenominal) productivity in manufacturing and low import barriers would allow domestic competition to increase due to lower prices. Opening the domestic market would not lead to an increase in the trade deficit or outdoor(a) debt as higher capital productivity would reduce the need to import capital.In overall terms, prospects for South Koreas economy are favourable, but the high rate of success from the growth performance in the 1980s will be difficult to replicate. The next phase of the Asian miracle that will involve China emerging as the worlds largest economy within 10 years and the re-emerging Japanese economy will provide substantial benefits for the Korean economy. Some important strengths of the economy include a well educated and motivated workforce, a growing level of R&D, continued rates of high savings, greater regional trade cogitate and potential for domestic growth through increased infrastructure investment, lodgement and personal consumption.In summation, South Korea is an economy which initially through selective government intervention and now through domestic and international reforms, sped to economic might. Although there are many challenges in the longer term launch South Koreas future uncertain, (including the reunification with the ailing, unstable North) the fact South Korea has come so far argues well for the future. If South Korea can make the necessary changes to its economy to become a s ustained industrialised nation then it will certainly take its place as an economic leader in the near future.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Definition of Mergers and Acquisition Essay

One plus angiotensin converting enzyme makes three this comparison is the special alchemy of a conjugations or an acquirement. The key principle idler buying a smart set is to create sh arholder value every over and above that of the sum of the two companies. Two companies together be to a greater extent valuable than two separate companies at least, thats the reasoning rotter Mergers and Acquisition. This rationale is particularly alluring to companies when times atomic get 18 tough. Strong companies pass on act to buy some other companies to create a much competitive, be efficient political party.The companies firmness come together hoping to gain a greater mart share or to achieve greater efficiency. Because of these electromotive force benefits, nates companies will often agree to be acquired when they know they give the sacknot survive alone. preeminence among Mergers and Acquisitions Although they are often uttered in the said(prenominal) soupcon a nd used as though they were synonymous, the terms unions and acquisition mean about different things. When one club takes over some other and clearly found itself as the new owner, the grease ones palms is called an acquisition.From a legal point of view, the range company ceases to populate the buyer swallows the channel and the buyers mental strain continues to be traded. In the pure sense of the term, a mergers happens when two dissipateds, often of about the said(prenominal) size, agree to go forward as a single new company rather than re main separately own and operated. This kind of action is more precisely referred to as a mergers of equals. twain(prenominal) companies stocks are surrendered and new company stock is issued in its channelise. For congressman, twain Daimler Benz and Chrysler ceased to exist when the two firms merged, and a new company, DaimlerChrysler, was created.In practice, however, actual mergers of equals dont happen very often. Usually, one company will buy another and, as part of the deals terms, simply allow the acquired firm to proclaim that the action is a merger of equals, even if its technically an acquisition. Being bought out often carries negative connotations, therefore, by describing the deal as a merger, deal makers and top managers try to make the takeover more palatable. (Investopedia. com the resource for investing and personal finance education. http//www. investopedia. com/university/mergers (Page 3 of 15).A corrupt deal will also be called a merger when both Chief Executive Officers agree that joining together is in the beat interest of both of their companies. But when the deal is un golden that is, when the target company does not want to be purchased it is always regarded as an acquisition. Whether a purchase is considered a mergers or an acquisition really depends on whether the purchase is friendly or hostile and how it is announced. In other words, the real difference lies in how the p urchase is communicated to and received by the target companys notice of directors, employees and shareholders.Garbage (2007) in his thesis paper on International Mergers & Acquisitions, Cooperation and Networks in the e-business defines a mergers as the combination of two or more companies in which the assets and liabilities of the selling firms are absorbed by the buying firm. check to Gaughan (2002) a mergers is a combination of two companies in which only one company survives and the merged company ceases to exist, whereby the acquiring company assumes the assets and liabilities of the merged company.An acquisition also cognise as a takeover? s the buying of a company, the target? by another or the purchase of an asset such(prenominal) as plant or a surgical incision of a company. In the episode of Vodafone acquisition of GT the acquired company gold coast telecommunication Company limited still remains the legal name and Vodafone gold coast (VFGH) as the brand name. Rosenb aum and Pearl (2009) describe another get up of acquisition known as a consolidation. According to them the terms mergers and consolidation are sometimes used inter swapably. As a everyday rule of thumb, a merger describes the acquisition of a smaller company by a larger one.If the union is in the midst of two corporations of more or slight equal size, then the term consolidation is probably applicable. For the purpose of this study, the translation of Rosenbaum will be adopted as the working definition of a merger. Types of Mergers From the perspective of business structures, there are different kinds of mergers. According to Welch, P. and Welch, G. (2007) political economy Theory and Practice (8th ed. ), economists generally classify mergers into three types (1) horizontal, (2) straight and (3) mixed. plain mergers This type of mergers takes place when two firms in the same line of business i. . they are in direct competition or they share the same increase lines and mark ets combine. A typical example is the 1999 Exxon Mobil mergers. The merger amid Vodafone and gold coast Telecom which is the decoct of our study is also a horizontal merger. Anticompetitive set up The vast majority of signifi dejectiont competition issues associated with mergers arises in horizontal mergers. A horizontal merger is one between parties that are competitors at the same level of production and/or distri aloneion of a good or service, i. e. , in the same relevant market.There are two types of anticompetitive cause associated with horizontal mergers unilateral effects and alignd effects. Unilateral effects, also known as non-coordinated effects, arise where, as a result of the merger, competition between the products of the coming together firms is eliminated, allowing the merged entity to unilaterally exercise market power, for instance by profitably raising the price of one or both unify parties products, thus damageing consumers. In homogeneous markets, unilat eral effects can be pronounced when two significant competitors merge to create a large, overriding player with only a few or no other competitors.In these markets, an important role in the assessment is played by market shares and by the capacity available in the market. In differentiate markets, unilateral effects tend to arise particularly when the two merging companies have highly substitutable goods. Such a price make up does not depend on the merged firm being the prevalent player in the market. The likelihood and magnitude of such an increase will instead depend on the substitutability of the products supplied by the two firms the circumferent the substitute, the greater the unilateral effects.Coordinated effects arise where, under certain(a) market conditions (e. g. , market transparency, product homogeneity etc. ), the merger increases the chance that, post merger, merging parties and their competitors will successfully be able to coordinate their demeanor in an an ti-competitive way, for example, by raising prices. As in the case of unilateral effects, the most common form of coordinated effects is in the case of horizontal mergers, i. e. mergers between firms active on the same market.The main question in analysing coordinated effects should be whether the merger materially increases the likelihood that firms in the market will successfully coordinate their behaviour or strengthen existing coordination. The task is to identify what factors are credibly to lead to coordination taking place between firms post-merger. This was a controversial field of view with which competition authorities and courtyards have struggled to come to terms over the years, but experience has led to the emergence of some agreement on what conditions are most likely to give rise to coordinated effects.According to the Airtours criteria, coordination is more likely to emerge in markets where it is relatively simple to reach a common understanding on the terms of co ordination. In addition, three conditions are necessary for coordination to be sustainable. First, the coordinating firms must be able to varan to a sufficient degree whether the terms of coordination are being adhered to. Second, check out requires that there is some form of credible deterrent mechanism that can be activated if deviation is detected.Third, the reactions of outsiders, such as current and futurity competitors not participating in the coordination, as well as customers, should not be able to jeopardise the results expected from the coordination. unsloped mergers These are mergers between firms that operate at different but complementary levels in the string of production (e. g. , manufacturing and an upstream market for an input) and/or distribution (e. g. , manufacturing and a downriver market for re-sale to retailers) of the same final product.Another example is the acquisition of alphabet television network by Walt Disney to enable Walt Disney air its recent movies to large audiences. In purely vertical mergers there is no direct firing in competition as in horizontal mergers because the parties products did not grapple in the same relevant market. As such, there is no change in the level of concentration in either relevant market. upright mergers have significant potential to create efficiencies largely because the upstream and downriver products or services complement each other.Even so, vertical integrating may sometimes give rise to competition concerns. Anticompetitive effects Vertical effects can produce competitive harm in the form of foreclosure. A merger is said to result in foreclosure where actual or potential rivals access to supplies or markets is hampered or eliminated as a result of the merger, thereby reducing these companies ability and/or incentive to compete. Two forms of foreclosure can be distinguished. The first is where the merger is likely to raise the costs of downstream rivals by restricting their access to an important input (input foreclosure).The second is where the merger is likely to prevent upstream rivals by restricting their access to a sufficient customer base (customer foreclosure). However, it should be noted that in general vertical merger concerns are likely to arise only if market power already exists in one or more markets on the supply chain. Conglomerate mergers involve firms that operate in different product markets, without a vertical relationship. They may be product extension mergers, i. e. , mergers between firms that produce different but related products or pure conglomerate mergers, i. e. , mergers between firms operating in entirely different markets.In practice, the focus is on mergers between companies that are active in related or neighbouring markets, e. g. , mergers involving suppliers of complementary products or of products belonging to a range of products that is generally change to the same set of customers in a manner that lessens competition. This kind of mergers takes place when two firms in unrelated lines of business combine. A merger between a bank and a media house will be an example of a conglomerate merger. One example of a conglomerate merger was the merger between the Walt Disney Company and the American Broadcasting Company (http//www. sk. com/wiki/Conglomerate_merger) Anticompetitive effects Merger review in this area is controversial, as commentators and enforcement agencies disagree on the extent to which one can predict competitive harm resulting from such mergers. Proponents of conglomerate theories of harm argue that in a small number of cases, where the parties to the merger have strong market positions in their respective markets, potential harm may arise when the merging group is likely to foreclose other rivals from the market in a way similar to vertical mergers, particularly by means of tying and bundling their products.When as a result of foreclosure rival companies become less effective competito rs, consumer harm may result. However, it should be stressed that in these cases there is a real riskiness of foregoing efficiency gains that benefits consumer welfare and thus the theory of competitive harm pauperisms to be supported by substantial evidence. Evaluation of the potency of existing regulations aimed to reduce anticompetitive practices of Mergers and Acquisitions in Ghana.Mergers and Acquisitions among companies in Ghana are set by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the Securities Industry natural law 1993 (PNDC Law 333) (Ghana Investment Promotion Center, 2008). The law mandates the SEC to review, approve and regulate takeovers, mergers, acquisitions and all forms of business combinations in accordance with any law or engrave of practice requiring it to do so. Ghanaian law on mergers and acquisitions is an amalgamation of some(prenominal) executive and legislative instruments passed as the bodily finance industry continues to evolve.The need to generate constructive competition among enterprises has been recognized by the government, and monopolies are actively discouraged as a result. The merger in November 2003 of two big(a) international mining companies Ashanti Goldfields and AngloGold (AngloGold succeeded in outbidding Rand Gold in the highly con-tested race with an offering of $1. 4 billion) promises great value to shareholders and the operations of both companies.The Companies Code stipulates the manner in which mergers and amalgamations should be effected. It places emphasis on company resolutions that authorize mergers and amalgamations and on the preservation of affected creditors rights. Ghanaian courts frown upon the tyrannical treatment of members or shareholders, and ample provision is made for aggrieved persons to apply to the court for redress at different stages of the merger or acquisition process. exotic enterprises are guaranteed unconditional exchangeability of profits and dividends through any ban k pass to deal in freely convertible currency, encouraging and securing unknown investment. The transfer of company shares is exempted from all stamp duties and capital gains resulting from mergers, amalgamations and reorganizations are also revenue enhancement exempt. Under Ghanaian investment law, preferential treatment is given to foreign and Ghanaian joint ventures by guaranteeing lower minimum capital requirements than those essential for wholly foreign-owned enterprises.On the whole, mergers and acquisitions in Ghana continue to evolve as the government secures an lineive environment through executive, legislative and judicial activism to attract direct foreign investment and thus improve the economy. Consequently, the local corporate finance market has began to see increasingly complex financial transactions taking place as more international companies elect Ghana as the regional centre for their operations and its courts for dispute resolution issues.

On the Subway Essay

The poesy On the Subway by Sharon Olds is a free-verse song about a white-hot wo hu valet de chambre and a late black man who find themselves alone with each other on the subway, facing each other from the opposite aligns of the car. As they watch out each other, the woman relates her thoughts about the situation, which reflect the fear and tension of living an urban life. The fact that the young man before her is black is of particular entailment to her.She reflects on the general predicament of blacks, and emphasizes the inequality between her and the young man. approximately of the meters intended pass on, expressed from a socially-aw ar perspective, is explicitly verbalize although Olds uses symbolism and figurative language, even a literal take on the poem will deliver some(prenominal) of her intended essence. Virtually everyone who reads the poem will be old(prenominal) with the issues it takes up, so the poem does not inform, whole when reminds the reader of th e woeful imbalance of role and privilege in society.It is only through the poems claim that the reader knows the setting and contextualizes the poems body even before body of the poem is read, the title is able to set the tone to some degree the subway is a dark and lonely place, whither people are squeezed together but go on dust-c everyplaceed and uninte respireed in each other. The woman finds herself alone on the car with a young black man with the casual cold look of a mugger, as she puts it.She also mentions that she wears dark fur, the / whole scratch of an animal taken and / used (11-1), which prefigures her coming discussion of the propensity of her kind, which is the white race, for taking advantage and stealing the rights of others. This brings her to a consideration of the boys possible behavior towards her, making her contemplate the possibility that the boy would consume to take his vengeance on this member of his white oppressors.The speakers thoughts revolve ar ound the imbalance of power in the car, and she contrasts it with the imbalance of power in society in general. The narrative is communicated from a socially-aware perspective. She speaks of eating the steak / he does not eat (19-20) of how easy this / white scramble makes my life (27-28), where without meaning or / trying to I must profit from his darkness (22-23). She is here speaking of the prevalent racial inequality that is still very much a part of social reality.The narrator is the more than privileged side of this temporary dichotomy, although the distribution of privilege becomes obscure in the brief result of time that they share the small space on the car, isolated from the rest of civilization I didnt know / if I am in his power (14-15), or if he is in my power (18). The two observe each other quietly, without interacting. In this tense situation, she observes how weak she is, and how the young man is physically superior to her.She is wearing dark fur (11), and she po ints out that he could take my coat so easily, my / briefcase, my life (16-17). She observes how easy this / white skin makes my life, this / life he could take so easily (27-29). She is aware that, without the security measure of society, she could easily become the oppressed, and he the oppressor. By juxtaposing her concrete physical impotence compared to the boy with what she believes is the general powerlessness of blacks and the weakness of the black identity in the white-dominated world, she creates a striking pseudo-paradox.The speaker contrasts her socially-constructed position of privilege with the boys obvious privilege of strength and almost absolute power over the speaker as long as they are in the car. here the speaker highlights the irony found in the fact that, although she belongs to the more muscular race, she is temporarily powerless before this young member of the less hefty portion of society. There is perhaps something objectionable about the speakers atti tude towards the young man.She speaks of his casual cold look of a mugger (8), and of his shirt, which is red, uniform the inside of the body / exposed (10-11), suggesting an association with violence. She immediately associates the young man with urban crime, and gives him too little credit for being a individual in his own right, but instead reduces him to a stereotype, to no more than a representative of the suffering and wickedness of his race. She does not blame him or his race, however, but instead blames the murderous beams of the / nations heart (24-25).Nevertheless, her implike appreciation of the boys predicament is probably as unwished-for as the oppression that she unintentionally inflicts upon him. Granted, the situation discourages any attempt of any passenger at getting insight into the others personality, so she cannot get any deeper appreciation of the young man. Olds uses a simple and familiar situation, which is riding on the subway, as a vehicle for her ref lections on the perversities of society. It is an extremely familiar worldview that the poems narrator expresses, and thus there are no radical ideas.The essence of this poem is nothing that has not been express before by countless others, but the poem stands out because of the apposition of the two kinds of power that she reflects upon as they observe each other. However, to fully lever this poem, it must be realized that the speaker is not to be trust entirely she does a disservice to the black race by the method of her approach to the matter. She ignores that fact that the young man is a person and instead renders him into an rescind entity.Thus, the poem provokes a two-fold criticism of the white race their oppressiveness, and their disposal to stereotype the oppressed. The heavy realism and simplicity of the poem effectively delivers its message of condemnation for the perceived oppression of whites by blacks. This message also benefits from the poems free-verse form. T here is also no explicit pattern and no pretensions in the delivery of the speakers thoughts, suggesting the narratives pure(a) honesty. Through the poems simplicity and directness, what Olds ultimately communicates is an attitude of abstract concern for a concrete individual.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

St. Joan of Arc biography

Arc is not only widely known all over the world for her bank in God, but for her outr be onous bravery. In this heroic story of backer Joan of Arc, everyone will be inspired for the courage of this young lady, who laid her liveness down for her faith, and for her country. Born to devout Catholic parents Jacques dart and Isabella Rome, SST. Joan of Arc was born on January 6, 1412 in the small village of Dormer, France. She was one of five children which lived on a fifty acre farm which was in the north-eastern part of France. In 1412 at the age of twelve, Joan experienced visions when she was alone in field.The angels of Saint Michael the Archangel, Saint Catherine of Alexandria, and Saint Margaret the Virgin, had appeared to her and told her to amaze out the English in France. She was very surprised that the angels had appeared to her, a woman, to do such a Job. When she was sixteen days old, she went to see Count Robert De Bureaucratic, who was an force commander in the town o f Vacuoles, to get permission to see the purple cut court. Count Robert De Bureaucratic did not take her seriously and do a Joke of Joan and her visions. He then send her home.Along with two early(a) en in January 1429, she returned to have a meeting with the Count to tell apart him a prediction she had made about an upcoming battle. When Joan was prove righteousness about her prediction, Count Robert De Bureaucratic granted her permission to have a meeting with the Charles VI. She dressed up as a man and was then escorted along with six other men to Chino. During the private conference with Charles VI, he was very impressed with Joan and her ideas. She also won the favor with Charles mother- in- right and she was sent on an expedition to Orleans.They thought of her as their only source of vindicated and hope in the hard generation of France. After multiple old age of the french being humiliated in battle, Joan yet again asked a favor of Charles VI. She requested for her self to be placed as one of the commanders of the French army. He granted her request by acknowledging the fact that every virtuoso one of his plans and strategies have failed, and there was a need for a naked as a jaybird plan. Joan then took control of the army, with her intelligent strategies and tactics, and proceeded to win many battles.With Joan in command, the state of war was reversed, in favor of the French. She showed outrageous courage and bravery by the many things that she has done in battle. She was also very determined by chip even after being wounded in the neck by an arrow. The advantage of the battle of Orleans was only one of the many battles won. The victory led to the necessity of more offensive action. She then persuaded Charles VII at a time again, by placing her in co-command of the entire army with Duke John II of Alnico. On May 23, 1430 Joan was captured during an attempted attack and was held a prisoner of war.She was unable to be released by Charle s VIII not intervening with he Duke Philip of Burgundy. Charles VII and the French did not try to save her. She time-tested to escape many times even by Jumping from a seventy foot lift in which she was held in. Later, the English government then bought Joan for ten thousand francs from Duke Philip of Burgundy and displace her infra trial. While under trial, Joan was mainly accused of being a heretic, sorceress, and adulteress. People have tried to collect testimony against her, but they could not find any evidence.Along with the insufficient evidence, the court violated ecclesiastical law by denying her the right to have a legal advisor. The trial had tried many times to accuse Joan of different laws broken, but her intelligence had proved them wrong. Under certain guidelines, Joan should of been placed in an ecclesiastical prison under the supervision of nuns, but instead, he was held in a secular prison and was guarded by actual solders. In conclusion to her trial, she was co ndemned and sentenced to burn at stake. On May 30, 1941, only being 19 years old, she was level(p) too tall pillar in front of a thumping crowd.Before being tied, she had asked clergymen to hold a crucifix before her while he would be consumed by the burning fire. Immediately after her body had washed-up burning, the English had burned her trunk once more, so that her bodily remains would only be ashes. Afterwards, they castes her remains into the nearby river called the Seine. About 24 years past Jeans death, the Hundred Years War had ended. The weak rule of the young ability Henry VI ended the war between France and England. Her ultimate remnant of bringing Charles VII was successful. In 1452, Jeans case had been put on retrial by Pope Casualties Ill.The main issues f the retrial was to investigate if the original trial had been handled flop or not. many a(prenominal) different clergymen conducted this investigation, and in June 1456, the court declared her innocent. In conc lusion, it wasnt until 1909 when Joan was beatified. On May 16, 1920, she was cannonaded a deification and martyr in the divine Roman Catholic Church by Pope Benedict W. Her saint name is now Saint Joan of Arc and is the patron saint of soldiers and France. Also, Many Catholics around the world look up to Saint Joan of Arc as a role model and inspiration. Her feast day is celebrated on May 30th every year.