Wednesday, January 16, 2019
Learning Strategies and Information-Processing Development Essay
Learning can be simply be as the process that leads to relatively permanent change in deportment or potential change in a persons behavior. Learning makes one change the way they perceive the surround, react to stimuli and interact. cognitive psychology is a very authoritative branch of modern psychology. The primary(prenominal) reduce of this climax is the retentivity-how breeding is stored and retrieved. Several theories have been developed with bear upon to this subject such as the correspond hypothesis (Atkinson & group A Shriffin, 1968).The stage surmise type is widely accepted since it proposes that info is processed and stored in three sequential stages i.e. the sensory store, short-term memory, and long-run memory (Atkinson & ampere Shriffin, 1968, p. 90). In addition to this model other accepted theories include levels-of- impact hypothesis proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972), the parallel-distributed impact model and the connectionistic model.This paper examines how attention, memory, recognition and knowledge atomic turn of events 18 related to various knowledge strategies. In addition, the paper discusses how visual-perceptual, locomote and words relate to study bear upon development.Information affect developmentAs stated in the introduction above, cognitive psychology forms an integral authority of the discipline of psychology. The most widely used theory is the stage theory whose focus is on how nurture is stored in memory. Information is processed in three stages and this is done in a serial and scholastic manner. another(prenominal) important theory is the levels-of-processing theory whose proposition is that the learner utilizes different levels of business relationship as he or she processes in formation.A major good of the information-processing strategies is in their explicitness and accuracy in diving composite cognitive functions into translucent elements that can be easily studied. However, when it comes to analyzing cognition into its distinct parts information processing bewrays to re-unite them into a general, comprehensive construct. In addition, most information processing tools such as computer models have lost touch with real-life teaching experiences (Berk, 2009).Information processing approach towards cognition seeks to explain how the learner (children and adults) direct on the different types of information. Most scholars becharm the mind as a complex system (a type of computer) through which information flows and is manipulated. General models such as the store model by Atkinson and Shiffrin assume that information is stored in three parts of the chief for processing the sensory register, short-term memory, and long-term memory (Berk, 2010, para.1).Craik and Lockhart (1972) level-of-processing model assumes that information is transportationred from working memory to the long-term memory depending on the level processing.There cost several other information proce ssing developmental models such as the Cases theory which is a reinterpretation of Piagets theory of information processing model. Case views cognitive development as the increase in information processing efficacy as a result of brain development which can be linked to more efficient acquisition strategies.Connectionism on the other overstep explains information processing development as a result of discipline strategies such as computer-simulated strategies which enhance inter-connectivity of processing units that be well stratified just like the neurological structure of the brain. Sieglers using his model of learnedness outline choice argues that, learners always generate a number of strategies for problem solving, the more the experience, the more strategies argon selected or discarded (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2008).Attention is a critical factor when it comes to human thinking, it dictates the information that exit be considered when undertaking a task. Attention is grea tly enhanced during beforehand(predicate) and middle stages of childhood. Thus, improved attention makes one to be more adaptable, discriminating and organized. Enhanced cognitive reticence and efficacy of attentional culture strategies argon pertinent to the fine-tuning of selective attention. The fine tuning of attentional learning strategies takes mark in four stages production deficiency, control deficiency, utilization deficiency, and effective strategy use (para.2). Whenever there is a problem with attention students would develop learning disorders.The argument here is that, when a student is learning a recent concept, their attention needs to be rivet on the new concept.  If they fail to fully pay their attention, it means that they willing have a right problem with the learning of the new information (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2008).Memory strategies are said to improve with age, as children continue to develop various methods such as, organization, and elaboration. This increases the likelihood of storing information in working memory and its consequential transfer to the long-term knowledge bank. Thus, over childhood stages and even in adolescence, students bow out steadily improves as knowledge is continually amassed and its organization is improved effectively.Childrens metacognitive abilities usually change from passivity to activity. A more productive view of mental functioning increases with the increase in awareness of information processing strategies, cognitive aptitudes, and task variables. Self-regulation cognitively develops gradually during childhood and adolescence stages. Recently, scholars of information-processing have focused their attention towards academic learning of children (Berk, 2009).Visual-perceptual, motor and language relation to information processing developmentA visual-perceptual skill is simply the brains king to process information as seen.  Previously, most scholars had assumed that a deficiency in visu al-perceptual skills was directly linked to the malfunctioning of the eye.  That is having a wretched physical vision or poor muscle control in the eye. However, the presence or absence of physical vision has nothing to do with visual perceptual. Instead, visual perceptual refers to the mogul of the brain the receiving of visual information, its interpretation, organization, storage, and contagion Thus, if a students brain is not properly storing information, move back will decidedly be poor.This directly affects the students ability to concentrate and read since he or she has a slow bow out of words. The slowing down of recall can also have a negative impact on their mathematical abilities let alone their eloquence in speech and education (Smith 2004).Language and phonological processing abilities are affected by the students ability to store, process, and retrieve information.  commonly language and phonological problems are rooted to reading disorders.  Many s tudents with reading disorders have difficulty storing, processing, and retrieving information.  A normal students left field brain hemisphere becomes dominant when they are carrying out tasks involving language processing (Berk 2009).A students motor skills are also an important factor when discussing about learning strategies.  Children will learn from their interaction with the environment this ability is affected hindered by a childs motor or verbal skills, a child will learn dampen when their motor skills are well developed.  This can be observed in a math class.  A conventional practice in the learning of fractions is the use of multiplication.  A student with a problem with their motor skills will have a problem with the use of manipulatives.  Thus they will definitely have it rough when it comes to the learning of fractions (Berk, 2010).ConclusionThis paper argues that there exist several other information processing developmental models such as the Cases theory which is a reinterpretation of Piagets theory of information processing model. Case views cognitive development as the increase in information processing capacity as a result of brain development which can be linked to more efficient learning strategies. The most widely used theory is the stage theory whose focus is on how information is stored in memory.Learning strategies such as memory strategies are pertinent to the process of information development. Information processing approach towards cognition explains how the learner operates on various kinds of information. The mind is a complex system (a type of computer) through which information flows and is manipulated. Deficits in information processing skills have negative impacts on a students ability to learn effectively. This is attributed to the reason that all learning is relatively cumulative. Thus, problems in learning should be detected early in enough and solved differently they would get worse with adva ncement of age.